Tree | Definition, Structure, Uses, Importance, & Facts | Britannica
that regularly renews its growth (
). Most plants classified as trees have a single self-supporting trunk containing woody tissues, and in most species the trunk produces secondary limbs, called branches.
To many, the word
evokes images of such ancient, powerful, and majestic structures as
, the latter being among the most massive and longest-living organisms in the world. Although the majority of
is represented by trees, the fundamental importance of these seemingly
plants for the very existence and
of life on
is perhaps not fully appreciated. The biosphere is dependent on the metabolism, death, and recycling of plants, especially trees. Their vast trunks and
, move water, and produce oxygen that is released into the atmosphere. The organic matter of the soil develops primarily from decayed leaves, twigs, branches, roots, and fallen trees, all of which recycle nitrogen,
, oxygen, and other important nutrients. There are few organisms as important as trees for maintaining Earth’s
This article discusses the historical, popular, and
classifications of trees, their evolution, their importance to humans, and their general structure and patterns of growth. For more information on the three botanical groups that include trees,
(the flowering plants). For general information on plants,
Classification of trees
developed a classification about 300
in which plants were grouped according to their general form—that is, as trees, shrubs, undershrubs, and vines. This classification was used for almost 1,000 years. Modern classifications of plants attempt to assign a plant to a particular taxon and establish relationships with other plants based on genetics, cytology, ecology, behaviour, and probable evolutionary lineages, in addition to gross
. Popular classifications, however, remain useful tools for studying the common stresses that the
exerts on all plants and the general patterns of
that are shown no matter how distantly plants are related.
Trees of the World
Trees are represented in each of the major groups of the vascular plants: pteridophytes (seedless vascular plants that include the
account for only a small percentage of
, many are
members of a
, attaining heights of 7 to 10 metres (23 to 33 feet); some are 15, 18, or occasionally 24 metres tall (49, 59, or 79 feet). These graceful trees, which are natives of humid montane forests in the tropics and subtropics and of warm temperate regions of the Southern Hemisphere, have huge lacy leaves; they are the remnants of a vastly more numerous flora that populated much of Earth during the
(about 358.9 to 298.9 million years ago).
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, a division of gymnospermous plants consisting of 4 families and approximately 140 species. Natives of warm regions of the Eastern and Western hemispheres, they also are remnants of a much larger number of species that in past geologic ages dominated Earth’s flora.
is the only living representative of the gymnosperm division
. It is a relic that has been preserved in cultivation around ancient Buddhist temples in China and planted elsewhere as an ornamental since the mid-18th century; the tree probably no longer exists in a wild state.
(division Pinophyta) are the largest group of gymnosperms and include trees and shrubs in 7
families and 545 species. Familiar representatives are
Dominating Earth’s present flora are the
, with about 300,000 species, among which are the majority of the world’s trees. Angiosperms are sometimes divided on the basis of a group of characteristics into two major groups: the monocotyledons and the eudicotyledons. The most numerous of the monocotyledonous trees are
; others include
, screw pines, and
. By far the greatest number of tree species are eudicotyledons; they are represented by such familiar groups as
Ecological and evolutionary classification
The tree is not an immutable biological category but rather a human concept based on visual
. Perhaps a general definition would describe a tree as a
woody plant that develops along a single main
to a height of at least 4.5 metres (15 feet) at maturity. This may be contrasted with a
, which might be loosely defined as a woody plant with multiple stems that is, in most cases, less than 3 metres (about 10 feet) tall. However, a species fitting the description of either in one area of the world might not necessarily do so in other regions, since a variety of stresses shape the habit of the mature plant. Thus, a given woody species may be a tree in one set of habitats within its range and a shrub elsewhere. For example, the
may thrive in the tree form at the base of a mountain but assume a shrub form near the mountaintop, the variation due principally to stresses exerted by such environmental conditions as altitude, temperature, and oxygen tension.
As seen in the section above, trees are found among many plant families that also include shrubs and herbs, so that the concept of tree is not a phylogenetic one. Further, there is no clear
as to whether the tree form is the advanced or primitive condition. Some paleobotanists suggest that trees are the most primitive members within these plant families. However, tree forms are found in all the vascular plants, from the
. It is furthermore true that, among the flowering plants, trees are found not only among the most primitive members (order
) but also among the more specialized, or advanced, members, such as the roses (order
Consequently, from both a taxonomic and a phylogenetic perspective, the tree is an artificial category. On an ecological basis, however, the tree can be recognized as a natural construct, as it represents an adaptive strategy by many different taxa to exploit and dominate the habitat above the ground.
In the early stages of the development of terrestrial life, land plants were rootless and leafless. Since they had their origins in aqueous
, they did not require the specialized conducting and supporting tissues afforded by
, nor did they require localized regions of
synthesis, since each cell was involved in metabolism, water and nutrient absorption, and respiration. Habitats farther from the water as well as aerial habitats represented available uninhabited environments.
One key to exploiting terrestrial habitats is increasing complexity of the plant’s form to allow specialization of function. This requires physiological and morphological complexity as well as biological optimization. If all the tissues of massive tree trunks were alive, for example, the physiological cost of maintaining these structures in the living state would be enormous and probably unattainable. An elegant solution came in the form of
structural adaptations: new tissues and organs permitted localization of the functions of the plant body.
The evolution of discrete plant body parts with separate functions allowed plants to move onto the land and undergo an incredible
evolved as specialized
organs. Stems provided mechanical strength as well as a conductive capacity to transport water and nutrients from the roots to the leaves. Roots provided anchorage and absorption of sufficient water and nutrients to support the remainder of the plant.
Graeme Pierce Berlyn
42+ Common Types Of Trees With Names, Facts, and Pictures
There are thousands of different tree species in the world, but they can be categorized into several types.
Here are the types of trees and their distinctive features.
Category of trees
1. Coniferous trees
In common terms, this category would refer to evergreens. This means that the foliage of these types of trees will remain green all year round.
Their most distinct characteristic is their needle-like leaves. Coniferous trees would be the likes of
2. Deciduous trees
This category refers to hardwoods. Their most common characteristic is annual foliage shedding during fall. Hardwoods have more varieties to note.
They have unique appearances and characteristics particularly in terms of shapes of leaves.
Trees With White Flowers
Trees With Purple Flowers
Popular Types of trees
It is one of the most preferred landscaping trees in North America and is a part of the olive family. It has more or less than 60 species and the most popular of them are black, green and white ash.
They are drought tolerant and hardy being able to retain their foliage all year long. Its leaves will turn yellow and burgundy during fall. Females produce winged fruits while males don’t. Diamond-shaped ridges will appear in the bark when they reach maturity.
It is considered as the most widespread tree in North America. It is distinguishable for its tube-like overall appearance, white, soft trunks and yellow foliage in the fall.
A group of aspens is called a clone because each one is the exact genetic replica of another making them stand out for their generic appearance.
It has one of the most prolific and extensive rooting rates even after it is chopped down, it would be hard to extinguish the tree altogether.
Interesting fact, these trees were the first types of trees to emerge right after the glaciers of the ice age receded.
They belong to the genus Betula with more than 50 species (18 of which could be found in North America alone). They have distinguishable papery white bark with irregular shaped black-brown furrows.
They are considered as rare deciduous that are popular in winter landscapes. However, they cannot live long compared to hardwoods as they could only last for 20 years but not for 100 years.
These trees are popular winter trees because they are used as Christmas trees. As wide and high growing evergreens, they are commonly found in streets, parks, wide gardens and boulevards.
It is native to the Himalayas and around the Mediterranean. In the US, it is grown as an ornamental because there are no native species available in the country. They retain their green foliage year-round and have a distinct holidays spice scent.
5. Cherry trees
These trees typically last for only 20 years except for the black cherry which lasts for up to 250 years. It is commonly associated with spring as its first blooms appear in the first week of spring.
A lot of spring events are dedicated to it especially in the US and Japan. Some cherry trees produce edible fruits while others are grown solely as ornamentals like the cherry blossoms.
Nonetheless, all cherry blossoms are edible and are dried for tea. They can grow huge (up to 80ft in the wild) and their black-brown trunks are sturdy.
Types of Cherry Trees
6. Conifer trees
It is one of the largest groups of gymnosperms in all continents except Antarctica with more than 800 species. They don’t produce flowers and fruits.
It is one of the tallest growing trees and includes the Giant Sequoias of North America. They are economically valuable as they produce a steady supply of good quality timber and in paper production.
7. Cottonwood trees (Populus deltoids)
It is a large deciduous tree that is strikingly fast-growing but with shorter lifespan. It is native to Canada, Mexico and the US.
It niches alongside streams and lakes but can be cultivated anywhere in high altitude places. It has smooth, yellow green bark that will turn ash gray when mature.
It has long, triangular leaves that are toothed in the edge. It is considered as an ornamental tree but it is also used to manufacture boxes.
Types of poplar trees
Any apple tree that produces fruits with 2-inches in diameter is considered as a crabapple.
It produces a multicolor façade in the summer with its dark-colored buds and lively colored flowers. Its leaves are dark green in the summer and spring and turn to red, bronze, yellow and purple in the fall.
Its fruits are used in tarts, jams, ciders and other preserves. It is native to Asia, particularly in Kazakhstan and has existed for 6,000 years.
These trees provide an exquisite show year-long with their deep green foliage, large crepe-like blooms in hues of white, lavender and pink and slender, green-brown trunk.
They can be cultivated as garden shrubs in gardens but full-blown trees are usually seen in parks and streets.
The more sun it receives, the more blooms it will produce. It is drought-tolerant and can thrive in a wide range of growing conditions.
10. Cypress trees
The cypress is one of the most famous ornamental evergreen as it is also used as an alternative Christmas tree for a winter landscape.
Most cypresses look like open umbrellas including the Monterey cypress which grows at 70ft tall. Christmas cypress would include the Arizona cypress while the smallest growing cypress is the Gowen cypress.
It has green-blue leaves that overlap like braids. The most popular is the Lone cypress covering a 17-mile drive in California.
They may be small-sized ornamentals but aesthetically, they will never disappoint. It produces masses of tiny, white/yellow flowers in spring contrasting in an acid gray-brown bark.
Because its wood is coarse and hard, it is also used in the production of tool handles, golf club heads, butchers’ blocks, mallets and jewelry boxes.
12. Elm trees
This semi-deciduous/deciduous tree is found deep in forests around the world. This tree is native to Europe and Asia and there are more than 40 genus of elms around the world.
The most famous of these would be the American, English and Slippery elm. Its leaves are yellow green but will turn darker as they mature.
Its leaves are notable for having a rough underside. It also has unique gray bark with odd furrows in it. As it grows older, the bark will flake and inside it will be white and brown wood. It is used to make boxes, crates and barrels.
Types of elm trees
They are also called the weeping fig and are known for their glossy, deep green foliage. They are also notable for their longevity either as houseplant or in the wild.
They have minimum care requirements and are low growers making them easy to naturalize in home gardens.
Its most popular species are Midnight known for their curly and dark leaves, the Starlight with deep green leaves with white edges and Judith with deep green leaves and yellow edges.
These trees are known to thrive in warmer climates. They grow delectable fruits with nutty taste, significantly referenced in the Judeo-Christian traditions.
Despite being known to grow in long summers, they can also be kept as indoor plants in temperate and colder regions.
Its most popular species is the common fig especially for new homeowners as they do not need pollinators to facilitate growth.
Other fig cultivars are harder to grow since they need specific pollinators which are wasps. Its fruits are preserved and are used as ingredients for cooking.
17 Best Plants That Repel Wasps And Bees
15. Fir trees
Fir trees are very popular in North America because they are commercially sold as Christmas trees.
There are more than 55 species of this tree but the famous species are the Balsam and Fraser fir. No fir tree could be grown as shrubs. At mature phase, they can reach a height of up to 260ft and their trunks could reach 13ft in diameter.
They have a pyramid shape appearance and they are distinguished from pines for their winged seeds and erect cones.
16. Flowering trees
As the name implies, this type of trees refer to trees or shrubs that either bloom with flowers only (ornamentals) or will bloom flowers that will turn into fruits after (fruit-bearing, flowering trees).
Flowering trees that will bloom year-round would be Dogwoods, Redbuds, Cherries and Fringes. Forsythia, magnolias and flowering crabapples are also included in the list of flowering trees.
Various fruit trees could thrive in various conditions but most of them will survive in temperate climates from zones 5-7.
All fruit trees are considered flowering trees too because their flowers will turn into fruits as they mature. But it has to be clarified that fruit trees are limited to trees that bear fruits for human consumption.
Once all the growing conditions are established, it will continue to bear fruits in the years to come and shall require minimum care conditions.
18. Hardwood trees
The term hardwood botanically refers to trees but astoundingly with no similar characteristics. Instead of needle-like leaves, hardwoods have large leaves.
They are also distinguishable because they produce fruits that are most of the time referred to as nuts.
Most importantly, they grow dormant during the winter and come back when temperatures stabilize. It is interesting to note that 40% of all trees in North America are considered hardwoods.
19. Hawthorn trees
They may be small in size but Hawthorn trees form a large group distinguished through their fruits and flowers.
All Hawthorn trees have recognizable scaly brown or gray barks and small, simple leaves. It is mostly used as a shrub in landscaping and for other commercial uses.
20. Hickory trees
These trees are exotic looking, with sturdy, dark brown trunks found in lines in state parks and large gardens. It is divided into two major divisions: common/true hickories or pecan hickories.
The pecan hickory is the sole species in this group that have commercial value because it produces good timber. All hickories have distinct oblong-shaped leaves that will change from deep green into yellow during fall.
They have gray-brown barks that peel as they mature. They are also known for their longevity as they could reach 300 years of age.
Types of Hickory Trees
21. Juniper trees
These trees thrive in arid regions and are considered as one of the most common trees around the world with almost 70 species.
The common juniper, to be specific, is the only species that lives in both North America and Europe. Junipers have two types of leaves: awl-like and scale-like.
Most bear two types of leaves while some features only one type of leaf. Because they produce small tree rings, they are valuable for timber production. They are also known for their longevity. Rocky Mountain junipers are documented to have existed from 2,000 years ago.
22. Lilac trees
Lilacs can be cultivated as either shrub or tree and can be further divided between upright lilacs and densely branched lilacs.
Upright lilacs are also called common lilacs and are known for their wide color selection and fragrance types.
On the other hand, densely branched lilacs are specifically bred because they bloom in masses in cramped up spaces. The most popular densely branched lilacs are the Manchurian and Meyer lilac.
23. Lime trees
This type has more than 80 cultivars and hybrids in its cluster. They are popular trees because they produce edible, sweet, acidic fruits.
Its most popular species is the Mexican lime because of its economic value. It is used in culinary purposes and common in the beverage and confectionery industry.
Its peels are also processed and dried for many functions in Asia and the Americas. In terms of appearance, they often share irregularly branching twigs, small, glossy leaves and thorns in their stems.
This type comes from the pea family and can be grown through shrubs and trees. All species of locusts are native to all regions in North America and are cultivated for many functional reasons including erosion control and for garden hedging.
Because of their white, cascading flowers, they are also cultivated as ornamentals. The most popular locust is the black locust tree.
25. Mahogany trees
This medium-size evergreen has small pointy leaves and hard fruits. It is native to southeast Asia, the Caribbean and south Florida.
It has a sturdy, thin trunk and gray bark that will turn darker as it gets old. It is one of the most popular industrial trees because of its rich brown color.
It is used to manufacture musical instruments, boats, caskets and furniture. Its bark is also scrubbed for its potency as astringent.
26. Mango trees
Mangoes are famous tropical trees since below 30 degrees could already damage the tree itself and its fruits.
It can grow very tall at 100ft and can provide a wide foliage canopy at 35ft. It is long, pointy, leathery leaves and small, yellow flowers emitting a sweet aroma before producing fruits.
Mangoes receiving enough light will have red stems while those with less than 6hours of light everyday will have brown-black barks.
It is dubbed as the most important North American forest tree group. They are known for being valuable woods in wildlife conservation and as highly aesthetic forest trees.
Its most popular species is the sugar maple as it is the source of maple syrup. The bark color depends on the maple tree type but its most distinguishable feature would be its twig, bud and leaf arrangement and color.
These trees have gained popularity through the years because of their ornamental value and fleshy, edible fruits that are added to tarts, pies and fermented as wine.
But since they are favorites of insects, butterflies and even pests, they are extinguished because of these pesky guests and because they also tend to become invasive.
The most famous mulberries are the black and red species.
29. Oak trees
These trees are found almost everywhere in New York City. There are at least 300 known
and 55 of them come from North America.
Oaks are divided between black and white oaks. White oaks have sweet tasting acorns while black oaks have bitter acorns and bristled leaves. They niche in forests and valleys.
30. Palm trees
This is another tropical tree with more than 2600 species. It is also one of the most planted trees because of their immanent benefits from food products, wood supply, oil, fuel and more.
They are also very common in parks, coastal boulevards and hotels but in regions that do not experience frost.
are also symbolic in many cultures and traditions.
31. Pear trees
This type of tree is another multifunctional tree that is why pears are popular orchard trees for homeowners.
Its fleshy fruits can be eaten raw or can be added in pastries, ciders and in savory dishes. Its sturdy, fine wood is also used in woodworks, in timber production and in furniture making.
The most commercially sold varieties are the Bartlett, Comice, Concorde, D’Anjou and Seckel.
32. Pecan trees
This type of tree produces the well-loved pecan nuts added to many baked goods and savory dishes. It could get quite messy though because its foliage, twigs and fruits have a habit of profuse shedding during fall.
In the wild, it could grow up to 130ft tall and its trunk can have a diameter of 75ft. It is very common in the southern US specifically in Texas, Oklahoma, Mississippi, Indiana, Kansas and Missouri.
These coniferous trees are some of the most famous types of planted trees around the world. In colder regions, they are used as alternative Christmas trees.
They have a cone-shaped appearance and have fine, needle-like leaves. Pines have more than 250 types in its cluster with huge economic value especially in timber production. They require low care requirements (even in acidic and low-nutrient soils).
At their mature phase, they can provide good canopy making them a famous evergreen.
34. Plum trees
It might be an unknown fact to many but plum trees provide exquisite purple and white flowers during spring. These are ornamental plums.
The common thing that we know about plum trees is that they bear fleshy, edible fruits that can be eaten raw or used as ingredients for pastries and savory dishes. It is also fermented as cider or wine.
These are fruiting plums. It has ovate leaves that are deep green in spring and summer and turns orange, yellow, or purple-red during fall.
38+ Trees With White Flowers (With Pictures)
They are also called Judas trees because according to biblical scholars, the tree where Judas Iscariot hanged himself was an eastern redbud tree.
They make beautiful ornamental trees because of their explosive papery lavender and white flowers in the spring. They have distinct heart-shaped leaves and long stems but their bloom time is relatively short compared to other ornamentals.
They are not large trees though, only achieving a maximum height of 30ft and 20ft in width. It has brown, soft bark and a divided trunk.
36. Redwood trees
Redwoods are considered as nature’s skyscrapers because they are the tallest trees in the world since it includes the Giant Sequoia and the California redwood.
They can reach a mature height of more than 250ft and 30ft diameter. These very tall-growing trees are extensively seen in Oregon, Washington and Northern California.
They have distinctive characteristics including the proverbial cinnamon-red bark. They also live very long. The Giant Sequoias in the Sequoia National Park is recorded to be more than 3,500 years old.
37. Spruce trees
With its more than 40 species, spruces can be grown as full trees or as ornamentals. They are used as an alternative for
and winter landscapes.
They are cousins of pine as they are members of the same family called Pinaceae and are native to North America and the rest of the northern hemisphere.
Spruces also have high economic value as they are the main sources of paper and timber production.
They are also used in manufacturing musical instruments including sounding boards for violins and pianos. They are also used in industry level manufacture especially for boats, barrels and in aircraft.
38. Weeping willow trees
This type is native to northern and is one of the most recognizable trees out there. It has a lush, curved form and whimsical cascading leaves. Aside from its uses, it has also established a strong presence in films, literature and in certain religious traditions.
They get their name from their cascading foliage that looks like tear drops. Their strong presence is well-referenced in Psalms as they are said to be found in the rivers of Babylon. They are also featured in Lord of the Rings, Game of Thrones and in Pocahontas, among others.
39. Sycamore trees
These tall deciduous can be found streams, river bottoms and damp woodlands. It is tough and relatively hard but not that strong.
It is also grained and coarse, making it a tough wood to work with. It has an interesting bark though with its bottom half with dark brown color and it peels up until the top half to reveal a yellow green bark.
It is used in woodwork specifically in making crates, tobacco boxes and butchers’ blocks. It is also significant in Judeo-Christian traditions.
40. Teak trees
This tall evergreen could reach to up to 30ft. Its large leaves resemble tobacco but with white-blue color. It also bears small, brown fruits with papery texture.
Its light brown bark with white-gray furrows are used traditionally in treating fever and headache. Its wood is also used in woodwork particularly in making boats, windows and doors.
It is a popular deciduous because of well, the loved walnuts. Aside from its culinary significance, it also makes good timber.
It is sturdy, durable and heavy. It is easy to work with when it comes to woodworks. Its rich brown color is popular for high end furniture including interior fixtures, cabinets and even gunstocks.
It has an outer black bark with gray furrows and an inner dark brown bark.
It is a medium-sized deciduous found in streams, lakes and deep in the forest where it is most moist.
It is known for its black/brown bark with thick, rough scales all over it. It also has an eerie vibe to it thanks to its cascading leaves. Its uses are not for timber production because its trunk is soft and crooked.
As such, the willow tree is used for making boxes and pulps. It is also a famous tree due to successful movies such as the Lord of the Rings and Pocahontas.
24 Different Types of Arborvitae Trees for Your Yard (With Pictures)
To conclude, there are a lot of things you should master about the types of trees. For one, you should be able to at least know the basic distinguishing characteristics of trees, specifically growing habit, rooting type, color of bark and of course if it is an evergreen or a deciduous type.
You should also know the growing conditions they require and knowing where they are natives of could be a good start to know what they need and where they will grow best.
With all things considered, knowing the various types of trees is of prime importance to landscape design and homeowners.
A Homeowner’s Guide To Proper Tree Care And Maintenance
87 Types of Trees (With Pictures and Names) - Identification Guide
All types of trees play an important role in our ecosystem. Trees provide shade, shelter, oxygen, and many even produce fruit. There are over 60,000 species of trees that come in all shapes and sizes, from majestic cedars to smaller
and shrubs. Identifying the different kinds of trees usually depends on examining their leaves and bark. Some types of trees have wide oval leaves, some have star-shaped ones, and many evergreen trees have needle leaves.
All species of trees are classified into two main types: deciduous trees and evergreen trees. Deciduous trees shed their leaves at a certain time of the year – usually in the autumn while
types of evergreen trees
keep their leaves throughout the year.
Trees are woody perennial plants that are a member of the kingdom
. All species of trees are grouped by their genus, family, and order. This helps make identifying and studying trees easier.
Apart from providing oxygen for the planet and beauty when they bloom or turn color, trees are very useful. Certain species of hardwood and softwood trees are excellent for timber, making furniture, and paper. When managed properly, trees are a good source of renewable energy and construction material.
In this article, you will learn how to identify 87 different types of trees. Most of these trees are common in North America, Europe, and other countries around the world.
Two Main Categories of Trees
All of the thousands of species of trees fall into two categories – deciduous trees and evergreen trees.
Deciduous trees shed their leave usually in the autumn
Deciduous trees are the kind of trees that lose their leaves at certain times of the year. The term deciduous literally means to “fall off at maturity.”
In North America, Europe, and temperate counties, deciduous trees such as oak,
shed their leaves in fall. This is usually preceded by the leaves turning wonderful colors including shades of orange, brown, and yellow.
In tropical countries, species of deciduous trees lose their leaves during dry seasons.
Evergreen trees retain their leaves all year around
Species of evergreen trees
such as spruce,
keep their leaves throughout the year. There are about 14 family groups of evergreen trees, and these trees provide color in gardens and landscapes all year long. Evergreen trees are the reason why forests look so beautiful in winter landscapes.
Identifying the Types of Tree Leaves
The shapes of the leaves help to identify the tree species
Tree identification is usually possible by examining the leaves.
There are three basic leaf types: broadleaf, needles, and scales.
Most, but not all, deciduous plants have
that can be in all shapes and sizes. The leaf shapes can be oval, rounded, long and narrow, triangular, or heart-shaped. Some easily identifiable broadleaves are the iconic maple leaf and the oak leaf with its lobed leaves.
trees such as conifers
, pines, and spruce trees have needle leaves. These can be long, thin and straight and grow in clusters. Or, the needles could be soft needles that grow sparsely on the twig.
Some types of evergreen trees like juniper and cedar have scale-like leaves. Their leaves look more like scales than needles.
Other ways to identify trees by their leaves include:
grow directly across from each other on the leaf stem.
grow in a staggered, alternating pattern along the stem.
Types of Trees With Pictures and Identifying Features
Here is a list of many types of common trees that grow in forests, woodlands, fields, and gardens.
Silver birch (Betula pendula) is a medium-sized deciduous tree with white peeling bark
There are about 60 species of hardwood birch trees of the genus
and in the family
. Birch trees can be easy to identify as their bark is often white or silver-colored and the long drooping branches have small thin leaves. Wood from birch is hard and is good for making furniture and plywood and is also a good source of firewood.
: Birch trees have small triangular-shaped leaves with a slightly serrated edge. Another recognizable feature is that the bark of birch trees is papery. Depending on the species of birch, the smooth bark can be dark gray to white.
Japanese maple (botanical name: Acer palmatum) is a small deciduous tree with many cultivars growing worldwide
are beautiful deciduous shade trees with deeply lobed leaves. Maple trees have dark brown furrowed bark, small winged fruits, and narrow reddish-brown twigs.
Maple trees belong to the genus
in the family
. Although the maple tree is commonly associated with Canada, most of the species are native to Asia. The most common maple tree species in Europe is the sycamore maple tree (
), and there are 10 species native to Canada.
Some of the most popular maple trees are the sugar maple (
‘Autumn Blaze’ maple (
Acer x freemanii ‘Autumn Blaze’
), red maple (
Japanese maple (
The most famous product made from maple trees is the sweet maple syrup made from the tree’s sap. Although you can make syrup from any maple tree, it’s only the sugar maple tree (
) that produces quality sweet syrup.
Maple is a hardwood tree that is also useful for making baseball bats and its timber is valued in the construction industry.
: Maples can be woody shrubs growing about 33 ft. (10 m) tall or large majestic trees up to 150 ft. (45 m) tall. The most common identifying feature of maple trees is their lobed leaves growing opposite each other on branches.
Ash trees are medium to large size and most of them are deciduous
are medium to large deciduous trees with a rounded crown of dark green leaves.
have lanceolate pinnate leaves that grow in groups of five, seven, or nine leaflets. Most species of mature ash trees have gray bark with a pattern that looks like a fishnet.
Most varieties of ash trees grow to between 50 and 80 ft. (15 – 24 m) tall. The medium-sized trees have a spreading round canopy up to 50 ft. (15 m) wide. Most varieties of ash trees grow in USDA zones 3 to 9 in full sun.
Ash is a species of tree native to North America and it’s a common tree in parks,
, woodlands, and residential neighborhoods.
Ash trees are a species of hardwood tree in the genus
This means that ash trees are related to olive trees and woody
Ash tree wood is prized for its strength and flexibility. The grain in the wood is also attractive and this makes the tree valuable for furniture makers.
: Ash trees have large, pinnately compound leaves. Ash tree leaves have narrow and slightly oval shape and they usually have five or seven leaflets. Mature ash trees have bark with ridges that form diamond shapes. Ash tree branches grow oppositely from each other.
Ash Tree: Types, Bark and Leaves – Identification Guide
Oak trees live in a wide range of habitats and are the national tree of many countries.
are hardwood trees that are common in North America and Europe. There are over 90 oak species in the United States. Oaks can be trees or shrubs and are in the genus
and the family
Oak trees are well-known for producing wood that is extremely hard, durable, and resistant to disease. Oak wood has been prized for centuries and was used to make ships, create interior paneling, and also barrels for storing wines and spirits.
Oak trees are divided into two groups:
(Quercus, subgenus leucobalanus) and
(Quercus, subgenus Erythrobalanus). White oak trees have gray-colored bark and leaves with rounded lobes. Red oak trees have darker-colored bark and leaves with pointed lobes.
Oak trees are known for
(also called oak nuts). Acorns have a smooth leathery shell that sits in a cup called a cupule. The acorns of white oak trees have a sweet or slightly bitter taste, however the acorns from red oak trees have a very bitter taste.
: Most species of oak are deciduous trees and a few are evergreen (such as the
live oak tree
Oak trees can be identified by their lobed leaves
with pointed or rounded tips. Oaks also produce acorns which are oval-shaped nuts sitting in a small cup-like structure called cupule.
Types of Oak Trees and How to Identify them (Pictures)
Sycamore Trees (
Sycamores are large flowering deciduous trees that grow easily from seeds
are large deciduous trees with a broad, rounded crown of lush green foliage. Sycamore trees have large serrated lobed leaves that look like maple leaves. These huge trees have thin, peeling reddish-brown bark. Sycamore trees can grow to huge proportions with some reaching heights of 130 ft. (40 m).
In the late autumn or winter sycamore trees have round brown seed balls hanging on their branches.
Sycamore is a species of large hardwood tree in the genus
. Sycamore wood is very hard and dense and not easy to work with.
Sycamore trees are fast-growing popular shade trees in city landscapes and parks. However, their roots have a destructive effect on sidewalks and building foundations. They are one of the largest deciduous trees native to North America.
The most common sycamore tree species in North America is the
which is also called the American sycamore. Other common names for the American sycamore tree are buttonwood tree, western plane tree, American plane tree, and water beech.
London Plane Tree (Platanus x acerifolia)
London Plane tree (Platanus × acerifolia)
Another type of sycamore tree is the
London plane tree (Platanus x acerifolia)
. This is a hybrid deciduous tree of the American sycamore (Platanus occidentalis) and Oriental plane tree (Platanus orientalis) species. London plane tree grows between 66 and 100 ft. (20 – 30 m) with a large, rounded crown up to 75 ft. (22 m) wide. The hybrid tree grows well in urban environments. It is found in major cities across the United States as a popular street tree.
: Sycamores trees often have bark that easily flakes off, giving the trunk a reddish-brown, multicolored look. Sycamore trees have large lobed leaves that look similar to maple leaves. The leaves grow alternately on stems and have 3 to 5 lobes with toothed edges.
Cedar Trees (
Cedars are evergreen coniferous trees
are large evergreen coniferous trees that have needle-like leaves that are arranged spirally on scented woody branches. Cedar trees are native to the Mediterranean region. True cedar trees are in the plant family
and the genus
Cedar trees are a type of hardwood and can grow especially tall with some of the largest species growing up to 164 ft. (50 m) high. Because of their grace and elegance, cedars are popular ornamental trees and are often cultivated as bonsai trees. Cedar trees are also popular for their aromatic wood and fragrant foliage.
There are hardwood trees native to North America that have “cedar” in their common name. But these types of cedars are in the list of false cedar trees. If you check their scientific name, many are species of junipers in the family
: Cedar trees have scale leaves that grow in dark green or bluish-green spiral clusters. There could be between 15 and 45 clusters on short shoots that make up the leaves on branches.
Juniper Trees (
Junipers are coniferous evergreen trees that vary in size and shape
Juniper trees are often called cedars but they belong to a different genus and family. Junipers (genus
in the family
) are evergreen conifers trees and shrubs with needle-like or soft scaly leaves that have a pine scent and dark-blue berry-like aromatic fleshy cones.
Species of juniper trees are tall columnar evergreens that grow between 66 and 103 ft. (20 – 40 m) tall. However, junipers can also grow as low-growing, spreading shrubs growing as little as 1 ft. (0.3 m) or as tall as 5 or 6 ft. (1.5 – 1.8 m). Junipers also grow in many climates and can withstand freezing temperatures.
Some popular types of junipers in North America include the Common juniper (Juniperus communis), California juniper (Juniperus californica), the
eastern red cedar (
) and Utah juniper (Juniperus osteosperma).
: Most species of juniper have needle-like leaves when they are immature that grow into scale leaves as the tree ages, with dark blue berry-like cones.
Juniper Trees and Shrubs: Types, Leaves, Berries – Identification Guide
Willows are deciduous
and shrubs that prefer very moist soil
are easily identified by their long drooping branches covered in oval elongated leaves. The leafy woody plants in the willow family are deciduous and can be low-growing shrubs or medium-sized trees.
There are about 400 species of willow that belong to the genus
. Willows can be large weeping trees, dwarf trees, or low-growing creeping shrubby plants.
One of the interesting features of willow tree leaves is their color. Willow leaves can be greenish-yellow, bluish-green or have red blushing.
Wood from willow trees tends to be soft and flexible and the branches are often used for making wicker baskets.
: Willow leaves are simple and elongated with serrated edges. Willows are usually last to drop their leaves in fall.
Pine is an evergreen coniferous that is fast growing and long lived tree
Pine trees are often used as ornamental trees and are a softwood type of conifer. Evergreen trees in the genus
are probably the most recognizable type of coniferous tree.
Pine trees produce hard cones and their leaves are clusters of needle leaves. Pine trees grow tall and straight with some of the largest species reaching heights of 268 ft. (81 m). Because of their fast growth, pine wood is important in the construction and furniture industries.
types of pine trees
have reddish-brown or gray bark and there is also a species called the Red pine.
: Their tall straight trunks and needle like leaves that grow near the top of the tree make these evergreens easy to identify.
Hickory are deciduous trees and include about 18 species
are deciduous trees in the genus
that are common in North America, China, and India. Hickory trees are well-known for their edible nuts.
There are 18 species of hickory trees, 12 of which are native to North America. The most common types of hickory trees are shagbark hickory (Carya ovata) and shellbark hickory (also called kingnut or Carya laciniosa).
Pecan trees are also a type of hickory tree as they are in the
genus and their botanical name is
Pecan tree bark is interesting because the bark splits and peels as the tree grows.
Hickory trees are related to
because they are in walnut family (
). Hickory is a type of hardwood that is used for making sports equipment such as bats and sticks, as well as being used for smoking cured meats.
: Hickory trees can be identified by their large green leaves that have a pointed tip at the end and they grow alternately on the stems.
Hickory produces edible nuts
that are in a “double” shell.
Blooming Redbud tree
Redbud trees are small
that are famous for their beautiful pink or white spring flowers. Redbud trees have heart shaped leaves and their seedpods have dark brown color. Redbuds are deciduous trees that have green leaves in the summer that then become yellow, orange or red during autumn. Redbud trees belong to the plant family
and the genus
One of the most common redbud trees is the Eastern Redbud (
). The Eastern redbud tree is named for where it commonly grows, which is in eastern North America.
Some of the names of
redbud tree varieties to plant in your yard
are: Ruby Falls redbud, Forest Pansy redbud, and Ace of Hearts redbud.
: Redbud trees can be identified by their pink flowers and heart-shaped leaves. Many cultivars in the redbud species
have different flower colors and tree size. Redbud trees can have light pink, white, or dark pink flowers.
There are many species of mahogany tree but “true” ones are in the genus Swietenia
Mahogany is a type of redwood tree that is famed for its hardness and straight grains. Genuine mahogany trees are 3 species in the genus
and are native to North and South America. Other types of mahogany tree in the family
grow in Asia, Africa, and New Zealand.
Mahogany wood is highly rated for its reddish-brown color and durability. Mahogany also is rot-resistant and has tonal properties making it the perfect type of wood for constructing musical instruments.
: Rich brown-red colored wood that gets darker with age. Mahogany tree leaves have oval shape and they grow opposite each other on the stem.
The tropical teak is large deciduous tree and is known for its high quality
Teak are massive deciduous trees that are species of trees in the genus
Some species of teak tree can grow up to 131 ft. (40 m) tall and their branches produce thin, papery leaves.
Teak is a type of hardwood that is popular with furniture makers and boat builders is teak. The reason why teak wood is widely used is that it is very weather resistant. Often, outdoor furniture, window frames, flooring, and boat decks are constructed from teak trees.
: Teak tree leaves are large and ovate with a smooth surface and edges.
Black walnut tree is has a commercial importance for lumber and walnuts production
Walnut trees are best well-known for their delicious and healthy edible nuts. Walnuts are deciduous trees are in the genus
and the family
. Walnut trees also tend to be large, massive trees that grow to between 33 and 131 ft. (10 – 40 m) tall. They also have a large spread.
The most important species of walnut tree for nut production is the
or black walnut. This species of walnut is an important source of hardwood timber.
generally have rough bark with deep fissures. The ridges in their bark run vertically up and down the trunk. The color of the walnut bark can be light gray to dark brown.
: Walnut tree leaves are alternate and are comprised of leaflets that grow opposite each other.
Walnut Trees: Types, Bark and Leaves – Identification Guide
Apple tree is a very popular and common
type of fruit tree
that is cultivated worldwide and has a beautiful blossom
Apple trees are a genus of large trees in the family
that produce beautiful flowers and a crop of apples.
Apple trees grow in most countries in the world and the most common species is the
tree. It is reckoned that apple trees are the oldest cultivated tree in history. It is estimated that there are over 7,500 different kinds of apple trees.
Apple trees can grow to 40 ft. (12 m) tall and have a spread of the same size. There are plenty of dwarf apple tree cultivars for gardens that may just grow 3 – 6 ft. (1 – 2 m) high.
: Apple tree leaves are alternate and simple and their shape is egg-shaped. Many types of apple trees have ovate leaves that come to a point.
Crabapple Purple Prince (Malus ‘Purple Prince’)
Crabapple trees (botanical name
) are like miniature apple trees (
). The smallest crabapple trees can be small shrub-like bushes around 4 ft. (1.2 m) tall. Larger crabapples can grow to between 20 and 30 ft. (6 – 9 m).
Crabapple trees are stunning ornamental flowering trees. Crabapple flowers come in spectacular shades of pink, white, purple, orange, and red. Additionally, crabapple trees produce small tart fruits called crabapples.
Crabapple fruits are generally up to 2” (5 cm) in diameter
and can be yellow, amber, orange, red or purple. The taste of crabapples ranges from sweet to very sour and bitter, and they are made into jellies, sauces, pickled crabapples, and jams.
Crabapple Trees (Malus): Types, Flowers, Fruits
Ornamental Flowering Pear Trees
Ornamental pear trees flower with beautiful white flowers every spring. In the picture: Bradford ornamental pear tree in bloom
Ornamental pear trees (
are) are deciduous flowering trees with shiny green leaves, cup-shaped white flowers, and beautiful fall colors. Most varieties of
have a pyramidal, upward growth shape. Ornamental pear trees grow between 32 and 40 ft. (10 – 12 m) tall and around 22 to 30 ft. (7 – 9 m) wide.
Although all flowering pear trees—including
—actually produce fruit, the tiny pears on ornamental pear trees are too insignificant to be useful. The pears are exceedingly small, measuring only about half an inch (1 cm).
fruit also tastes bitter, and, for most people, the small pears are inedible.
Ornamental pear varieties are heat and drought-tolerant and are resistant to many fruit tree diseases. These facts make ornamental pear trees popular for front and backyards. Ornamental flowering pear trees grow in USDA zones 5 through 9.
Types of Ornamental Flowering Pear Trees – Fruitless Pear Trees
Cherry trees have many cultivars that include edible fruit trees, ornamental flowering trees, weeping and dwarf trees
Cherry trees (
) are spectacular deciduous flowering trees that bloom in spring. There are hundreds of varieties of cherry trees – Species of cherry trees are categorized by their fruit or blossoms.
), sour cherries (
ornamental cherry blossom trees
, such as Japanese cherry blossom tree (Prunus serrulata) and Yoshino cherry (Prunus
Typically, fruit from cherry blossom trees is too small and sour to eat—although they are a favorite of many birds.
If you have a small garden or a compact space, you can choose
dwarf cherry blossom trees
. Typically growing in USDA zones 5 through 8, you can easily grow a stunning dwarf cherry blossom tree in full sun and well-drained, fertile soil.
There are also
weeping cherry trees
, such as weeping Higan cherry (Prunus subhirtella ‘Pendula’) and
dwarf weeping cherry tree
varieties, such as
Prunus jacquemontii ‘Hiromi’
that grows between 3 and 6 ft. (1 – 2 m).
Cherry trees have beautiful whitish-pink blossoms in spring between mid-March and mid-April covering bare branches. Cherry trees have glossy green oval leaves with pointed tips and serrated edges.
Cherry trees grow in USDA zones 5 through 9. However, some cold-hardy cherry trees can withstand temperatures in zone 4.
Types of Cherry Trees with Their Leaves and Flowers – Identification Guide
Most hawthorn trees grow between 5–15 m (16–49 ft.) tall and have edible berry-like fruit
The botanical name for
and they are in the same family (
) as apples. Hawthorns are a type of tree or shrub that is native to Europe, Asia, and North America. Leaves from the hawthorn tree grow spirally on long shoots.
Because of their attractiveness, hawthorns are grown as street trees or ornamental trees and the smaller shrubs also make great hedges.
Other names for hawthorns include ‘thornapples,’ ‘hawberries,’ ‘mayhaw,’ or ‘May-tree.’
: Hawthorn leaves come in many different shapes. Some types of hawthorn trees have leaves that are deeply lobed and look like large parsley leaves. Other hawthorn leaves look more ovate due to having shallow lobes.
Elm trees can grow tall and are popular street trees
are a common type of forest tree that are classed as deciduous or semi-deciduous. There are about 35 species of elm in the genus
Some common species of elm include
American elm (
), European elm (
), and Slippery elm (
Elm trees are large shade trees that can grow up to 100 ft. (30 m) tall with a wide spread of around 75 ft. (22 m). Some elm species have tall, upright growth, and other types of elm trees have an umbrella-shaped canopy.
: Elm is a thick, dense hardwood tree and some species are especially ornamental and beautiful. Elm leaves are classed as broad-leaves that can be between 7 and 16 cm long and their ovate shape tapers to a point. Elm bark is a dark grayish-brown color with deep furrows and a scaly appearance. Elm tree seeds are small and round and are protected in an oval papery casing called a samara.
Types of Elm Trees with Their Bark and Leaves – Identification Guide
Spruce trees are slow growing and are important in the building industry
make up many of the
types of forests
in North America and are a type of coniferous evergreen tree. Spruces are classed as large trees that belong to the
genus. One feature of spruce trees is that they are extremely cold hardy. Some of the larger spruce species are very imposing because they can be as high as 200 ft. (60 m).
All of the 35 species of spruce trees have pine needles that radiate equally around the stems and can be prickly. The most common spruce trees in North America are the Red spruce, Black spruce, and White spruce. Spruce trees are also traditionally used as Christmas trees. Spruce trees are also one of the most important trees for the timber industry.
: Spruce tree cones are long and cylindrical that hang down off the tree. Also, the leaves of spruce trees are rows of green, bluish-green, or silver-green needles.
are large evergreen conifer trees that are mainly found in forests in North America, Europe, and Asia. They have needle-like leaves that stay green all year long. Some species of fir tree such as the Fraser fir, balsam fir, and noble fir are popular
types of Christmas trees
The easiest way to identify fir trees is by looking at their needles and cones. The needles of fir trees tend to be softer than pine or spruce. Unlike the clusters of pine needles on a branch, fir tree needles attach individually to the branches and not in clusters. Also fir cones tend to grow straight upward from the branches.
The bark of young fir trees is usually smooth and gray. As the tree matures the bark becomes ridged.
Types of Fir Trees – Identification
Cones and foliage of Canadian hemlock (
Hemlock trees (botanical name Tsuga) are a species of large evergreen coniferous trees native to North America that belong to the pine family.
Native hemlock trees generally grow between 30 and 230 ft. (10 – 70 m) tall. However there are dwarf cultivars of the popular Eastern hemlock or Canadian hemlock that are beautiful landscaping trees to suit small gardens.
Hemlock trees are identified by their conical shape, flat, aromatic needle-like leaves, oval or cylindrical seed-bearing cones, and reddish-brown bark. Hemlock needles are recognizable by their flat appearance and blunt, rounded tips, with a smooth, shiny dark green upper side and parallel white stripes on the underside.
Hemlocks are cold-hardy evergreens that grow in USDA zones 3 to 7. They perform well in damp soils and can be found growing in wetlands.
Hemlock Trees (Tsuga): Canadian, Western, Leaves, Bark – Identification
Flowers of black locust tree
are fast-growing flowering trees that grow to between 66 and 98 ft. (20 – 30 m) and belong to a family of flowering plants called
. Most types of locust trees grow in the eastern states of North America.
The most common types of locust trees are the black locust and honey locust tree. Locust trees have fragrant sweet spring flowers and colorful fall foliage. Many varieties of locust trees have long sharp thorns and there are a few thornless species.
Locust trees are hardy trees that are known for their hard and durable wood that is used for making furniture, fence posts, flooring, and small boats.
Identifying species of locust trees can be done by features such as their flowers, color of bark, height of the tree, the thorns, as well as by the shape and color of its seed pods.
Types of Locust Trees with Identification Guide and Pictures
Cottonwood trees are species of poplar trees belonging to the genus Populus
are huge deciduous forest trees that have large green leaves, thick foliage and deeply fissured grayish-brown bark. One of the common features of all types of cottonwood trees is the fluffy cotton-like strands that appear in early summer .These large trees can grow to between 50 and 80 ft. (15 – 24 m) and some species can grow even higher.
Cottonwood trees are common in North America, Europe, and some parts of Asia. Cottonwood trees are popular because they are fast-growing, their timber is cheap, and they thrive in wetlands and arid environments.
For many people, the fluff from cottonwood trees is a nuisance and can cause allergic reactions. However only the female species of cottonwood trees produce the white fluff for which the tree is known.
Cottonwood Trees: Facts, Identification, Pictures and More
Poplar Trees (Populus)
White poplar tree (Populus alba)
Poplar (Populus) trees are large deciduous trees with rounded to triangular leaves, attractive grayish bark, and small clusters of drooping flowers.
Many poplar trees are identified by their bark’s color— white, gray, or black— and triangular, ovate leaves. The white poplar is the most common poplar tree and has white bark and white and green leaves that seem to ‘twinkle’ in gentle breezes.
Apart from the common white poplar tree (Populus alba), other types of poplars include the black poplar (Populus nigra) and balsam poplar (Populus balsamifera).
Many poplar species are large ornamental trees with wide canopies, making for excellent shade trees. Native poplar trees are easy to grow and have a relatively short lifespan. These
are good choices for planting in wet, moist ground where there is plenty of space.
Poplar trees range in height and grow in USDA zones 3 through 9.
Poplar Trees: Types, Bark, Leaves – Identification
Arborvitae Trees (Thuja Trees)
are evergreen conifers with soft, lush feathery foliage. Different types of arborvitaes grow as upright
, small conical trees, or globe-shaped shrubs. Arborvitae trees and shrubs are ideal for natural privacy screens, wide hedges, living fences, or specimen trees.
The American arborvitae (
) and Giant arborvitae (
) are native to North America, where they are popular garden landscaping plants. American and giant arborvitaes can grow to a height of 49 ft. (15 m) tall, however
have develop to suit smaller spaces.
The ‘Emerald Green’ arborvitae is one of the most popular landscaping trees in the
species. Also called ‘Smaragd,’ this upright columnar arborvitae has compact growth and reaches up to 14 ft. (4 m) tall.
Varieties of Arborvitae Hedges, Trees, and Shrubs
Cypress Trees (Cupressus)
Mediterranean Cypress / Italian Cypress (Cupressus sempervirens) trees, foliage and cones
There are various trees with the common name cypress, however not all of them are true cypress tress.
belong to the coniferous plant genus
. Cypress trees have soft, feathery evergreen foliage and produce cones that look like large acorns. Cypress trees such as the Monterey cypress (
) and the Mediterranean Cypress / Italian Cypress (Cupressus sempervirens) are true cypress trees.
False cypress trees are evergreen and deciduous
that also have the common name cypress. However, they are not from the cypress genus
. The bald cypress (
) and Pond Cypress (
) are examples of false cypresses. The Hinoki cypress (
) and Lawson Cypress (
) are other false cypress varieties.
True and False Types of Cypress Trees
Lemon eucalyptus trees (Eucalyptus citriodora / Corymbia citriodora)
have evergreen aromatic leaves and attractive smooth peeling bark. The unusual eucalyptus flowers have a fuzzy look and can be white, cream, yellow, pink, or bright red colors.
Eucalyptus plants are flowering trees and shrubs with over 700 species. Some species of eucalyptus trees can grow as tall as 330 ft. (100 m). Eucalyptus shrubs—known as mallees—grow up to 33 ft. (10 m) tall.
Some types of Eucalyptus trees are called gum trees, and fruit from eucalyptus plants are called gumnuts. Eucalyptus plants are native to Australia but also grow in tropical and temperate climates throughout the world.
Types of Eucalyptus Trees: Leaves, Flowers, Bark
Dogwood Trees (Cornus)
Flowering dogwoods are small to medium size trees. They add decorative touch to any garden
are beautiful flowering deciduous trees belonging to the genus
with distinctive flowers, berries, bark, and leaves. Dogwood flowers bloom in spring and are typically white, but some species produce yellow, pale red or pink blossoms.
Dogwood trees are small to medium-sized trees, growing between 10 and 25 ft. (3 – 7.6 m) tall. Most species of dogwood are fast-growing ornamental trees that are ideal for garden landscapes. Some types of dogwoods look like shrubs as they are small shrubby multi-stemmed plants.
To grow dogwood trees, plant them in partial shade or full sun. Dogwoods flower every spring and require well-draining soil that is always moist. After the small trees are established, you only need to water them regularly on hot summer days.
Flowering Dogwood Trees and Shrubs: Types, Leaves, Bark – Identification
Crape Myrtle Trees (Lagerstroemia)
Large and small crape myrtle trees grow best as specimen trees and add a focal point to a landscaped garden
belong to the
genus of flowering trees and shrubs that thrive in warm climates. Popular in garden landscapes, crape myrtle trees produce masses of red, pink, purple, and white flowers throughout the summer.
Crape myrtle shrub-like trees have deciduous or evergreen foliage, colorful peeling bark, multiple stems, and bushy growth. Most species of crape myrtle trees thrive in USDA zones 7 through 10.
Dwarf crape myrtle trees are large shrubs that are perfect for compact gardens. Typically, dwarf myrtle trees grow between 6 and 10 ft. (1.8 – 3 m) tall, such as the ‘Acoma’ crape myrtle that is a multi-stemmed shrub-like tree with masses of white flowers and a rounded spreading crown. Other crape myrtle trees grow between 15 and 20 ft. (4.5 – 6 m).
Crape Myrtles: Trees, Dwarf Plants and Shrubs
Mesquite Trees (Prosopis)
Honey Mesquite Tree (Prosopis glandulosa)
Mesquite is the name for several large deciduous shrub-like trees in the genus
and pea family
. Mesquite shrubs and trees can be a few feet tall or grow up to 50 ft. (15 m). From the 40 species of mesquite, around seven are
native to Texas
, California, and Northern Mexico.
Mesquite trees are short and thorny with feathery leaves, white or yellow flowers, and seed pods containing peas. The most common types of mesquite trees are the honey mesquite tree (
), velvet mesquite tree (
), and screwbean mesquite tree (
Mesquite trees thrive in USDA zones 7 through 11 in full sun and well-draining soil. You can find mesquite
trees growing in deserts
, grasslands, along streams, and on hillsides. Because of their fast growth and extensive root system, mesquite plants are considered invasive in some areas.
Mesquite Trees: Types, Leaves, Flowers, Bark – Identification Guide
Southern Magnolia (Magnolia grandiflora)
Magnolia is a genus of large
flowering shrubs or trees
in the family
Magnolia grows as a multi-stemmed shrub or a single trunk tree. The
beautiful landscape tree
is characterized by its fragrant pink, purple, yellow, or white flowers, glossy leathery leaves, and cone-like fruits.
Magnolias can be deciduous or evergreen depending on their growing zone. There are some 125 species of magnolia suitable for growing in most zones. There are 8 species of magnolia native to the United States.
The most popular magnolia types are the Southern Magnolia (
), Star magnolia (
), and Saucer magnolia (
Magnolia × soulangeana
Most varieties of magnolia thrive in full sun or partial shade. Magnolia trees and shrubs adapt to various soil types and grow well as long as the soil is well-draining.
Types of Magnolia Trees and Shrubs with Their Flowers and Leaves – Identification Guide
Buckeye Trees (Aesculus)
Buckeyes are deciduous ornamental trees that are popular in parks and open spaces
Buckeye is a variety of ornamental deciduous trees in the genus
that is related to the
horse chestnut tree
. There are four main varieties of buckeye trees. Common varieties of buckeyes are the Ohio buckeye, the California buckeye, and the yellow buckeye.
Buckeye trees grow between 12 and 40 ft. (3.5 – 12 m) tall. You can find buckeyes growing in the
and grasslands in the Midwest. They are also popular trees in parks and open spaces in states along the East Coast and the Southern states. Ohio buckeyes are found all the way from New York to Kentucky and down to Texas.
Buckeye trees are identified by their large round inedible nut-like seeds that look like the eye of a buck, green palmately compound leaves, and creamy-yellow or red flower clusters.
Types of Buckeye Trees with Their Flowers and Leaves – Identification Guide
Horse Chestnut Trees (Aesculus hippocastanum, Aesculus carnea)
Horse chestnut tree (Aesculus hippocastanum) is a flowering deciduous tree commonly found in parks and open landscapes
The horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanumis) a species of large deciduous flowering tree in the genus Aesculus. With its stout branches and oval to rounded crown, the tree grows 50 to 70 ft. (15 – 21 m) tall and up to 65 ft. (19 m) wide. Horse chestnuts grow in USDA zones 3 through 8.
Horse chestnut tree has spiky green balls containing a large, oval inedible brown seed like the nuts (seeds) from a buckeye tree. A horse chestnut tree is easy to identify in the landscape due to its large, rounded leaves, white-pinkish flowers growing in conical clusters, domed crown, and tall stature. Although too large for most gardens, horse chestnut trees are popular in parks and streets.
There are two primary varieties of horse chestnut trees: Aesculus hippocastanum and the red horse chestnut tree (Aesculus carnea), which is a smaller tree that grows 30 to 40 ft. (9 – 12 m) tall, and its rounded crown spreads up to 35 ft. (10 m) wide.
Red horse chestnut tree (Aesculus carnea)
The red horse chestnut is a hybrid tree of the Aesculus hippocastanum and Aesculus pavia (red buckeye). The red horse chestnut isn’t as tall as the regular horse chestnut, and it has deep red showy flowers rather than white ones.
The red horse chestnut is suitable for growing in USDA zones 5 through 8. Like most species of Aesculus, the leafy flowering tree performs well in full sun or partial shade. The attractive shade tree grows well in most soils that are well-drained.
Horse Chestnut Tree: Leaves, Flowers, Bark (Pictures) – Identification
Vitex Trees (Chaste Trees)
Vitex is a woody plant that can grow as a shrub (left) or as a multi-stemmed shrubby tree (right)
Vitex tree (also named chaste tree) is a large type of multi-stemmed shrub or small tree with attractive spikes of lavender-colored flowers that bloom in summer. Although referred to as the vitex tree or chaste tree, the vitex plant generally grows as a sizeable bushy shrub. But in warmer climates, vitex can grow as a small multi-trunked tree.
Chaste trees (
) have many characteristics that make them desirable garden shrubs/trees. Apart from the clusters of small violet flowers, these plants have aromatic grayish-green, lanceolate leaves. The large deciduous shrubs/trees have a vase-shaped growth that spreads upward and outward.
Vitex trees grow best in USDA zones 7 through 9. In warmer climates, the large shrub can grow up to 15 ft. (4.5 m) tall and, as a tree, up to 20 ft. (6 m) tall. In zones 5 and 6, the shrubby plant experiences winter die-back. However, frost rarely affects the roots, and vitex bushes come back to life the following spring.
Vitex Trees (Chaste Trees): Types, Flowers, Leaves, Care
Larch Trees (Larix)
American Larch (Larix laricina) is a popular type of larch and is native to Canada and the northeastern states of the US
Larch is a species of deciduous, coniferous tree in the genus Larix and pine family Pinaceae. There are between ten and twelve species of larch trees. The two most popular species of larch are the American Larch (Larix laricina)—also called tamarack—and the Western Larch (Larix occidentalis).
Larch trees are identified by their pyramidal growth, typical of most conifer species. However, unlike most conifers, larch trees turn golden yellow in the fall before dropping their leaves (needles). Larches are one of the few conifer trees to have bare branches with no foliage in winter.
Larch tree leaves are soft, flat needle-shaped leaves characteristic of many pine trees. Like all true conifers, larch is a cone-producing tree with male and female cones growing on the same tree.
Larches are also tolerant of freezing temperatures, and they thrive growing in zones 2 through 5.
Larch Trees: Types, Leaves, Cones, Flowers – Identification Guide
Alder Trees (Alnus)
Alders are large deciduous trees that grow well in wet areas
Alder (Alnus) is a genus of flowering deciduous trees in the family Betulaceae. There are about 35 alder species, comprising of large trees and smaller shrub-like trees.
Alder trees are known for their drooping flower clusters and brown woody cones called strobiles. The alder cones develop from catkins (conical flower clusters) and stay on the tree throughout the winter, giving the bare branches a distinguishable look.
It’s easy to identify alders in landscapes due to their vast, rounded crown, serrated green leaves, and brown conifer-like cones.
Several species of alder trees are native to North America and Europe, with the Red Alder (Alnus rubra) and Black Alder (Alnus glutinosa) being the two most common.
Alders thrive in marshy, damp ground. Most alder species thrive in USDA zones 5 through 8; however, some individual species may be more or less cold-hardy.
Alder Trees: Leaves, Bark, Flowers, Cones – Identification
Sweetgum Trees (Liquidambar)
The American sweetgum tree (Liquidambar styraciflua) is also called gumball tree
Sweetgums are ornamental flowering deciduous trees in the genus Liquidambar and the family Altingiaceae. You can find sweetgums growing in eastern North America from Connecticut to Florida and as far west as Texas, Missouri, and Oklahoma.
There are 15 species of sweetgum trees that reach a mature height between 32 and 130 ft. (10 – 40 m). Sweetgum trees get their name from the sweet, sticky, resinous substance the oozes from the cut trunk.
Identifying features of sweetgum trees are large lobed leaves that can be orange, red, yellow, or purple colors in the fall, small globular flowers, and seed-containing spiky gumballs measuring up to 2” (5 cm) across.
The most popular sweetgum tree is the American sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua) which is also called gumball tree and is a beautiful shade or lawn landscaping tree.
Sweetgum Trees (Gumball Tree, Liquidambar): Types, Leaves – Identification Guide
Linden Trees (Tilia)
The flowering deciduous linden trees are typically large and suitable for landscaping spacious areas
Linden trees (genus Tilia and the family Malvaceae) are large deciduous shade trees with large heart-shaped broadleaves and clusters of fragrant yellowish-white flowers. In the fall, linden tree leaves turn a spectacular bright yellow color.
There are around 30 species of linden trees and shrubs that typically grow to between 65 and 130 ft. (20 – 40 m) tall and 50 ft. (15 m) wide.
Linden tree identification is by their thick furrowed trunks, rounded crown, dense leafy foliage, and pyramidal growth habit.
European linden trees are also called lime trees, and North American lindens are called basswood trees. They thrives in full sun to partial shade and moist soil with excellent drainage.
Linden Trees: Types, Leaves, Flowers, Bark – Identification
American Basswood trees (American Linden) thrive in USDA zones 3 – 8, but they may also grow in sheltered areas of zone 2
The main linden tree species in North America is the American basswood (Tilia americana) which is also named American linden.
American basswood is a large, fast-growing deciduous tree with fragrant yellowish-white flowers, large heart-shaped leaves with serrated edges and pointed tip, and a domed crown. In fall, the leaves of deciduous basswood trees turn pale yellow to yellowish-green.
After blooming, the flowers of basswood tree develop into basswood fruit. The small round nut-like balls measure up to 0.4” (1 cm) in diameter and dangle from long narrow leaf-like bracts.
The American basswood tree is a popular ornamental shade tree due to its dense foliage and spreading canopy. Popular American basswood cultivars include Carolina basswood, Redmond basswood and white basswood.
The American basswood tree is the only native North American species in the genus Tilia and is often found growing in eastern and central North America. Other tree species in the genus Tilia are known as linden trees.
American Basswood Trees (American Linden): Types, Leaves, Flowers – Identification
Aspen Trees (Populus)
Quaking Aspen Tree (Populus tremuloides) is the main species of aspen growing in North America
Aspen trees are flowering medium-sized deciduous trees belonging to the genus Populus. Aspens are characterized by their straight, slender trunks with gray-white bark, round leaves with toothed margins, and clusters of dangling flower spikes called catkins.
The quaking aspen (Populus tremuloides) and bigtooth aspen (Populus grandidentata) are the most common aspen trees in North America. You can find aspens growing as far north as Alaska and as far south as Mexico.
Aspen trees have a unique spreading root system that produces new clone trees. You will often find smaller aspen trees growing alongside large, mature aspens as the tree suckers sprout up from roots.
Aspen trees typically grow among coniferous trees in North America. Aspen trees are cold-hardy trees that thrive in USDA zones 2 through 8.
Aspen Trees: Types, Leaves, Flowers – Identification
Acacia trees and shrubs can be of varying sizes and are tolerant of dry, arid conditions
Acacia thorny trees and shrubs are an evergreen plant species with unique fern-like leaves and showy clusters of fragrant yellow or white fuzzy flowers. Acacia fruit looks like peapods that can be straight, coiled, or twisted. The pods grow in clusters on acacia trees and can be green, brown, or black.
Many species of Acacia are native to Australia, and some are native to Africa. In North America, acacias grow in warm states such as Texas, Arizona, and California.
Also called wattles, acacia trees grow best in full sun and well-draining, loamy, or sandy soil. The drought-tolerant plant hardly needs any water after it’s established in the landscape. It’s a trouble-free, low-maintenance evergreen tree that don’t require much care.
Acacia trees are fast-growing and relatively short-lived trees that grow between 20 and 30 years.
Species of trees and shrubs in the genus Acacia thrive in USDA growing zones 9 through 11.
Acacia Trees: Types, Leaves, Flowers, Thorns – Identification
Beech Trees (Fagus)
American Beech Tree (Fagus grandifolia)
Beech trees (botanical name Fagus) are tall deciduous shade trees with green ovate leaves with finely toothed margins, creating a dense, rounded crown. In the fall, beech tree foliage turns from green to beautiful autumn shades of orange, yellow, and golden brown.
All varieties of beech trees produce small clusters of yellow-green flowers (catkins), followed by beech tree unique looking fruit or beechnuts. The fruit (nuts) from beech trees are triangular in appearance and are contained in spiky husks called cupules.
The most common types of beech trees are the American beech tree (Fagus grandifolia) and the European beech tree (Fagus sylvatica).
Beech trees are easy-care, versatile trees that thrive in various conditions. Native to temperate climates in North America and Europe, beech trees grow in rich, fertile soil with excellent drainage.
Beech Trees: Types, Leaves, Bark — Identification Guide
Catalpa tree is identified by its long and slender seed pods
Catalpa trees are flowering deciduous ornamental shade trees with large, heart-shaped or triangular leaves, white or yellow fragrant flowers, and long, slender dangling seed pods appearing in fall and persisting until winter or even spring. The unusual masses of long seed pods on catalpa trees look green and gradually turn dark brown.
Two species — the northern catalpa (Catalpa speciosa) and southern catalpa (Catalpa bignonioides) — are native to North America. The other common type of catalpa tree is the Chinese catalpa (Catalpa ovata), which is native to China.
Catalpa trees are typically fast-growing trees that grow best in full sun and are adaptable to growing in various soil types.
Catalpa Tree: Types, Leaves, Flowers, Seed Pods
Serviceberry Trees (
Autumn Brilliance Apple Serviceberry Tree (
Amelanchier × grandiflora
Serviceberry is a group of small deciduous fruit trees or multi-stemmed shrubs with beautiful white flowers that bloom in early spring. Serviceberry trees and shrubs are identified by their long oval leaves with finely serrated edges, clusters of showy white 5-petalled flowers, smooth gray bark, and small round edible purple pome fruits. Serviceberry trees are excellent garden landscaping plants because they have a visual appeal in all four seasons.
There are 20 species of deciduous trees and shrubs in the genus
and rose family
. Serviceberries are native to North America and grow widely throughout the United States and Canada.
Serviceberry trees thrive in full sun to partial shade in USDA zones 4 to 9. They grow between 10 and 25 ft. (3 – 7.5 m) tall and up to 20 ft. (6 m) wide. Because serviceberry is a multi-stemmed tree that sends up suckers, if you to grow it as a tree, it’s vital to remove suckers to prevent it from developing into a bushy shrub.
Serviceberry: Trees, Shrubs, Leaves, Flowers – Identification
Tulip trees (
Tulip tree flowers are not easily spotted among the green foliage
Tulip trees are flowering deciduous trees in the genus
and magnolia family
. The two species of tulip trees are the American tulip tree (
) and the Chinese tulip poplar (
Also called the tulip poplar or tuliptree, these impressive trees are easy to identify in landscapes with their straight trunk, oval or pyramidal canopy, yellow-green flowers, and beautiful golden yellow fall colors. The cup-shaped or trumpet-like flowers appear in late spring and complement the bright green, unusually shaped leaves. Being a type of deciduous tree, the tulip poplars lose their leaves in the fall when the foliage turns golden yellow.
Tulip trees thrive in USDA zones 4 to 9. They grow between 60 and 160 ft. (18 – 50 m) tall and have a pyramidal crown measuring 30 to 50 ft. (9 – 15 m) wide in their native habitat. Tulip trees are relatively fast-growing but grow for between 15 and 20 years before the trees produce flowers.
An issue with growing tulip poplars in garden landscapes is that they can be messy. Apart from their enormous size, the flower petals and autumn leaves can litter the ground. Additionally, the trees secrete a sticky sap that sticks to cars, paths, and driveways.
Tulip Trees (Tulip Poplar): Leaves, Flowers, Bark – Identification
Sumac Trees (
Staghorn sumac (Rhus typhina)
) is a group of flowering small trees and shrubs. Sumacs are identified by their fern-like pinnate leaves, conical clusters (panicles) of white or green flowers, and fuzzy red berries. In the fall, sumac trees and shrubs turn brilliant autumn shades of red, orange, or purple.
There are around 150 species of sumac, with 14 being native to the US. Sumac trees and shrubs grow in most soil types and are often seen growing in dry and poor soil.
Native North American sumac trees grow in USDA zones 3 through 9. Trees and shrubs in the genus
grow between 3 and 33 ft. (1 – 10 m).
Sumac trees such as the staghorn sumac (
), smooth sumac (
), and fragrant sumac (
) produce edible red berry-like drupes. Most species of sumac are
that lose their leaves in the fall. The native tobacco sumac (
) is an
with glossy green, leathery leaves.
A characteristic of sumacs is their suckering growth habit. This feature means that sumacs can grow as multi-stemmed shrubs if you don’t remove the suckers.
Sumac Trees: Types, Leaves, Berries – Identification Guide
Hackberry Tree (
Common Hackberry Tree (Celtis occidentalis)
) is a group of medium-sized, deciduous trees with long ovately-shaped leaves, clusters of small fuzzy spring flowers, and small purple fruits. Low-maintenance
are hardy trees that withstand many conditions, including drought, wet soil, strong winds, and air pollution.
The common hackberry tree (Celtis occidentalis) grows 40 to 60 ft. (12 – 18 m) high and wide. The attractive landscape tree has a pyramidal crown when immature. As the tree grows, the tree develops an open, spreading canopy of arching zigzag branches.
Hackberry bark is its most recognizable feature. The smooth light brown or grayish bark has characteristic wart-like growths, ridges, and a corky texture giving the tree’s bark a distinctive pattern.
The common hackberry is native to many states in the Midwest and Eastern areas of North America. In addition, some species of hackberry, like the sugarberry (
), are common in Texas and other warm states in the south.
Most hackberry trees thrive in USDA zones 2 to 9. The sugarberry—or southern hackberry—grows best in zones 5 to 10.
Hackberry Trees (Celtis): Common Types, Leaves, Bark, Fruit – Identification
Mulberry Trees (Morus)
Old mulberry tree
Mulberry trees (botanical name
) are popular deciduous trees that produce delicious edible white, red, or black berry-like fruits. Commonly called mulberries, the medium-sized,
have attractive heart-shaped leaves, spikes of tiny white flowers (catkins), and thick grayish-brown bark.
The common species of mulberry trees are red mulberry (Morus rubra), white mulberry (Morus alba), and black mulberry (Morus nigra). They thrive in USDA zones 4 through 9, full to partial sun, and well-drained soils. In addition, the mulberry tree is relatively resistant to pests and disease.
The mature size of mulberry tree depends on the species. White mulberry is the tallest at 80 ft. (24 m), and the common red mulberry grows up to 70 ft. (21 m). The black mulberry is the smallest species, with a height of around 30 ft. (9 m).
Additionally, there are many mulberry cultivars, such as the weeping mulberry tree (Morus alba ‘Pendula’), fruitless mulberry tree, and dwarf mulberry tree which is ideal for containers, and grows 2 to 6 ft. (0.6 – 1.8 m) tall.
Mulberry Trees: White, Red, Black with Flowers and Leaves
Mimosa Trees (Albizia Julibrissin)
Mimosa tree flowers and leaves
The mimosa tree (slso called the Persian silk tree) is a fast-growing ornamental tree with silky pink pompom-like fluffy flowers, fern-like leaves, and brown flat, bean-like seed pods. The mimosa tree is a deciduous, medium-sized tree in the genus Albizia and legume family Fabaceae. A full-grown mimosa tree can measure between 10 and 50 ft. (3 – 15 m) and up to 50 ft. (15 m) wide.
Mimosa trees are native to Asia and thrive in warm climates in USDA zones 6 through 10. These trees have a rapid growth rate, growing around 3 ft. (1 m) per year and can be invasive. However, they are short-lived trees. Their average lifespan is only 30 years. Additionally, the trunk and branches are weak and brittle and easily break in strong winds.
Mimosa trees grow well in containers and are excellent patio, deck, or balcony plants. Keeping them in a large container and pruning will limit their height.
The Chocolate mimosa tree (Albizia julibrissin ‘Summer Chocolate’) is not as invasive as other varieties. It is a small deciduous tree with chocolate-burgundy foliage that grows between 15 and 20 ft. (4.5 – 6 m) tall and up to 20 ft. (6 m) wide.
Mimosa Trees (Albizia Julibrissin): Facts, Flowers, Leaves
Yew Trees (Taxus)
Yew trees, which have dense evergreen foliage, love pruning and are a great as privacy hedge or topiary
Yew (botanical name Taxus) is a genus of slow-growing coniferous evergreen trees and shrubs. Yews are typically long-lived trees that can live for hundreds or even thousands of years. Ornamental yew trees grow between 35 and 65 ft. (10 – 20 m) tall and up to 20 ft. (6 m) wide.
Yews are cold-hardy evergreen trees that thrive in USDA zones 3 to 7. Yews can grow in temperatures as low as -13°F (-25°C); however, the shade-loving trees don’t perform well in prolonged hot temperatures.
Yews are identified by their thin, scaly brown bark, tiny single-seed cones, red fruits, and linear flat leaves. The English yew (Taxus baccata) is the most common species. But Irish yew, Western yew, and Japanese yew are also ornamental conifer trees.
If you want to plant a yew tree as a
tall hedging plant
, it is best to choose a shaded spot because the evergreen trees grow well in partial sun or deep shade. Ensure that the ground is well-draining and protect yew trees from heat, drought, and full sun for more than six hours a day.
Yew Trees: Types, Berries, Leaves – Identification
Sassafras is a group of deciduous trees with three species of sassafras native to North America and Asia—Sassafras albidum, Sassafras randaiense, and Sassafras tzumu. The common Sassafras albidum matures at 30 to 60 ft. (9 – 18 m) tall and 25 to 40 ft. (7.6 – 12 m) wide.
However, the shrub-like tree also has suckering tendencies and can quickly become a large multi-stemmed shrub. In open woodlands, it’s not unusual to see colonies of sassafras that are all connected to the same parent tree.
Sassafras trees thrive in USDA zones 4 to 9. The trees are commonly found on the east coast of the United States. Sassafras trees grow best in full sun to partial shade. In garden landscapes, sassafras trees thrive in well-drained, acidic soil. In ideal conditions, sassafras trees are fast-growing trees that grow between 12” and 24” (30 – 60 cm) a year.
Recognizable features of sassafras trees are unusually lobed leaves, clusters of golden-yellow flowers, and dark blue berry-like drupes. Sassafras trees are also highly aromatic trees. In fall, when the foliage turns spectacular orange, scarlet, yellow, and purple colors, the leaves give off a strong fragrance. In the spring, the blossoms smell of root beer. Sassafras trees are relatively fast-growing trees that grow between 12” and 24” (30 – 60 cm) a year.
Sassafras Tree: Leaves, Flowers, Bark – Identification Guide
You can remove suckers around the central trunk to grow a single-stemmed chokecherry tree
Chokecherry (Prunus virginiana) is a small deciduous tree or multi-stemmed shrub that sends up suckers. Typically, a chokecherry trees grows between 3 and 20 ft. (1 – 6 m) tall and up to 20 ft. (6 m) wide. However, it’s not unusual for some chokecherry trees to reach 30 ft. (9 m) tall.
The fruit-bearing trees or shrubs are common throughout the northern states of the US and Canada. Chokecherry trees are known for their tart, bitter, berry-like drupes and are used to make jams and jellies. The tart flesh of Chokecherry fruit is edible, however don’t eat the seeds that contain toxins.
Identifiable features of chokecherry plants are relatively smooth gray bark, glossy green egg-shaped leaves, white spring flowers, and dark red or black summer fruits.
As a cold-hardy shrub or tree, the chokecherry thrives in USDA zones 2 through 10. The attractive flowering plant grows best in full sun or part shade, and when established, chokecherry is tolerant of drought.
Chokecherry Tree: Leaves, Chokecherries, Flowers – Identification
Plumeria Tree (Frangipani)
Plumeria is a group of small flowering trees or shrubs and is famous for highly scented, exotic, showy flowers. Plumeria flowers are shaped like a star and come in shades of white, yellow, pink, red, and multi-colors.
Plumeria trees are also called frangipani. The tropical trees are classed as deciduous or semi-evergreen trees or shrubs. However, there are a few evergreen plumeria tree species like the
The spectacular flowering trees thrive in USDA zones 9 through 12. They commonly grow in Florida, the Caribbean, the Pacific islands, Mexico, and Central America.
Frangipani trees are moderate to fast-growing plants that can grow up to 20 ft. (6 m) tall. However, in most tropical and subtropical garden landscapes, the exotic trees reach between 6 and 8 ft. (1.8 – 2.4 m) tall.
The only care plumeria trees require is plenty of sunlight, well-drained soil, water, and fertilizer.
Plumeria Tree: Growing and Care Guide
Ginkgo Biloba Tree
Ginkgo trees have a unique leaf shape that helps identify them
Ginkgo biloba tree is a slow growing spectacular deciduous ornamental tree with large fan-shaped leaves that turn a stunning buttery-yellow color in the fall. Ginkgo biloba is the only species of tree left in the genus Ginkgo and the family Ginkgoaceae.
Ginkgo trees grow 50 to 75 ft. (15 – 23 m) with a broadly spreading pyramidal crown that grows up to 60 ft. (18 m) wide. However there are many varieties and smaller cultivars.
Also called the maidenhair tree, the ginkgo tree thrives in loamy, well-drained soil, full sun to partial shade, and in growing zones 3 to 9.
Male ginkgo tree is identified by its long drooping flower-like cones that “bloom” in mid-spring. The female ginkgo tree is identified by its orangey globular fruits growing in dangling clusters. Each round fruit contains a single large seed.
The main complaint of the ginkgo tree is the offensive stink from the fruit. Also, the slimy flesh of the female ginkgo fruit is particularly messy. If you have a small, compact garden, it’s best to choose male dwarf cultivars.
Ginkgo Tree: Identification and Growing Guide
Holly Tree (Ilex)
American holly tree (Ilex opaca)
Holly plants belong to the genus Ilex and the family Aquifoliaceae. The various types of hollies include large trees, bushy shrubs, and dwarf cultivars.
Holly trees can grow between and 30 and 80 ft. (10 – 24 m) tall. However, holly bushes typically grow up to 6 ft. (1.8 m) tall and are multi-stemmed plants.
Although most species of hollies are evergreen plants, there are some deciduous hollies that drop their leaves in winter. The most common holly species are the American holly (Ilex opaca) and the English holly (Ilex aquifolium). Both these evergreen holly trees are famous for their shiny, jagged leaves and winter red berries.
Holly leaves are typically ovate or oblong, glossy green with wavy margins that are spiked, serrated, or smooth. Some of the most spectacular varieties of holly trees and bushes are variegated cultivars. The inedible berry-like fruits of holly are usually red but can be other colors, such as yellow and black.
Holly Trees and Bushes: Identification Guide
Chestnut Trees (Castanea)
American chestnut tree (Castanea dentata)
Chestnut trees are large deciduous trees with large, pointed leaves with coarsely toothed margins, long finger-like flower clusters (catkins), and brown edible nuts.
Chestnuts are easily identifiable due to the spiky burs growing in clusters and containing the fruit—a brown-shelled nut encasing creamy-white flesh. Chestnut trees have a straight, broad trunk with deeply furrowed bark and a large spreading rounded canopy.
Species of chestnut trees belong to the genus Castanea and the beech family Fagaceae. The flowering trees mostly grow in temperate regions of the world in USDA zones 5 to 7. Chestnut trees perform best in full sun and loamy, well-draining soil.
The American chestnut (Castanea dentata) used to be in the timber industry, however due to chestnut blight fungal disease it is almost extinct in the wild now. It can grow up to 75 ft. (22 m) tall and wide.
Chestnut Trees – Identification Guide
Redwood trees are the largest and tallest trees on the planet. Redwoods are famous for their towering stature, with the tallest trees reaching 360 ft. (110 m) tall.
Two evergreen redwood species are native to California: California redwood/coastal redwood (Sequoia sempervirens) and giant redwood/sequoia (Sequoiadendron giganteum). The deciduous dawn redwood (Metasequoia glyptostroboides) is native to China.
Sequoias are the largest trees in the world in terms of volume, and they have immense trunks. Redwoods are the tallest trees and have slender trunks.
Redwoods require humid conditions with substantial rainfall in spring, fall, and winter. In addition, the foggy conditions common along the northern Pacific coast allows redwoods to thrive.
As a coniferous trees, redwoods produce seed-bearing cones, green needle leaves, and tiny yellowish-brown flowers. The cinnamon-red or reddish-brown bark is one way to identify redwood trees.
Redwood Trees: Types, Facts and Identification
Orchid Tree (Bauhinia)
Variegated orchid tree (Bauhinia variegata)
The orchid tree is a genus of flowering shrubs and trees in the genus Bauhinia and the family Fabaceae. Orchid trees are native to Asia and commonly grow in India, China, Sri Lanka, and Vietnam. Some orchid tree species also grow in the wild in Texas in the Anacacho mountains.
Orchid trees are fast-growing large tropical shrubs or trees that reach a height of 20 to 40 ft. (6 – 12 m) with a spread of 10 to 20 ft. (3 – 6 m). The trees are famous for their brightly colored orchard-like flowers that bloom in winter and persist until early summer.
The flowers of orchid tree are beautiful pink, red, orange, yellow, white, or purple flowers resembling flowers growing on orchid plants. After flowering, the tree develops long, flat brown seed pods, common of many trees in the pea family Fabaceae. In addition, orchid trees have distinctive leathery, double-lobed green leaves that resemble the print of a cow’s hoof.
Some species of orchid trees are evergreen trees. Still, others are deciduous trees that drop their leaves during the dry season or in winter.
Orchid trees thrive in the warm regions of USDA in zones 9 to 11. Although some varieties of orchid trees survive a light frost, they are generally heat-loving trees that thrive in full sun and moist soils. The minimum temperature to grow orchid trees is 22°F (-6°C).
Orchid Tree (Bauhinia): Types and Care Guide
Tabebuia impetiginosa (Pink Trumpet Tree)
Tabebuia tree, also called the trumpet tree, is a spectacular showy flowering tree with pink, light purple, or bright yellow flowers.
Tabebuia trees thrive in hot climates where the deciduous trees add color, strong fragrance, and beauty to garden landscapes. The small to medium-sized trees are easy to grow in full sun as an ornamental tree or shade tree, and they grow well in containers.
Tabebuia trees thrive in warm, humid climates. The leafy deciduous flowering tree performs best in USDA zones 10 and 11.
The most common varieties of tabebuia tree grow around 15 to 30 ft. (4.5 – 9 m) tall and 40 ft. (12 m) wide. However, some species can reach heights of 60 ft. (18 m).
Some botanists give the tree the botanical name Handroanthus. However, Tabebuia is still an accepted and well-known name for this tropical tree. The common name trumpet tree refers to the spectacular blooms that appear throughout the summer.
To identify a tabebuia tree, look for the leathery oval or oblong palmately compound leaves, showy trumpet flowers in dangling clusters, and slightly rough, fissured, tan-colored bark. Tabebuia leaves are dark glossy green, made up of five to seven leaflets. The tree’s characteristic showy pink, pale purple or yellow flowers grow abundantly in large clusters.
Tabebuia Tree: Types, Leaves, Flowers (with Pictures) – Identification
Zelkova serrata tree (Japanese zelkova)
Zelkova is a genus of deciduous trees in the elm family Ulmaceae. There are six species of zelkova trees and various cultivars. The common Zelkova serrata tree is the most common and grows up to 100 ft. (30 m) tall. However, zelkova tree cultivars are typically smaller and grow between 10 and 80 ft. (3 – 24 m).
tree is native to Japan, China, Taiwan, and Korea. This is a reason why the leafy ornamental tree has the common name Japanese zelkova. Furthermore, because the zelkova trees are related to elms, the tree also goes by the name Japanese elm.
Part of the popularity of zelkova trees is that they are tolerant of a range of conditions. The shade tree with its bushy green foliage tolerates urban conditions, making it ideal as a street tree or ornamental residential tree. In addition, the graceful zelkova tree is tolerant of drought, wind, and heat.
Identify a zelkova tree by its short central trunk and spreading branches forming a vase-shaped crown. Zelkovas have grayish-white peeling bark revealing light orange inner bark. Large green serrated ovate leaves turn shades of red, orange, and yellow in the fall. Yellowish insignificant flower clusters and nut-like drupes grow on the tree.
Zelkova trees are cold-hardy in USDA zones 5 to 8.
Zelkova Trees: Types, Leaves, Bark – Identification
Kentucky Coffee Tree (Gymnocladus Dioicus)
Kentucky Coffee Tree (Gymnocladus Dioicus)
The Kentucky coffee tree is the only native tree in the genus Gymnocladus in the legume family Fabaceae. The Kentucky coffee tree got its name from the coffee-like beverage you can brew from the roasted seeds.
The attractive deciduous tree with its open, irregular crown grows between 60 and 70 ft. (18 – 21 m) and 40 to 50 ft. (12 – 15 m) wide.
The Kentucky coffee tree is a popular ornamental tree, thanks to its appearance and growth habit. It has pinnate green leaves that turn bright yellow in the fall, greenish-white flowers, and large reddish-brown seed pods. Native to the Midwest, the Kentucky coffee tree is identified by its irregular oval crown with open branches that provide partial shade. Additionally, scaly gray-brown furrowed bark and reddish-brown twigs help identify the tree in winter.
Male trees tend to cause less mess as they don’t produce seed pods, making them suitable for planting in a residential landscape. Additionally, the Kentucky coffee tree is tolerant of drought and urban air pollution.
Kentucky coffee trees are relatively hardy deciduous trees that thrive in USDA zones 3 through 8. The coffeetree performs well in full sun and fertile, well-drained soils. However the tree performs just well in compacted clay soil as in sandy, loamy soil.
Kentucky Coffee Tree – Identification and Care
Hornbeam Tree (Carpinus)
American hornbeam (Carpinus caroliniana) tree
Hornbeam trees are a group of deciduous, flowering hardwood trees in the genus Carpinus. Hornbeams are ornamental landscape trees with a wide canopy, dark green, ovate leaves with serrated margins that turns golden yellow in the fall, and slim clusters of green-yellowish flowers (catkins). Common species of hornbeam trees—the American hornbeam (Carpinus caroliniana) and European Hornbeam (Carpinus betulus)—are popular in home garden landscapes and parks.
The most popular hornbeam cultivar is the ‘Fastigiata’ European Hornbeam (Carpinus betulus ‘Fastigiata’). This columnar landscape tree has a pyramidal shape and dense canopy, making it ideal for growing as a hedge plant, privacy screen, or natural fence. The ‘Fastigiata’ hornbeam grows 30 to 40 ft. (9 – 12 m) tall with a narrow habit of 15 to 20 ft. (4.5 – 6 m) wide.
Hornbeam trees have relatively slow growth and have an average growth rate of 12” (30 cm) per year. Growing for between 50 and 150 years, the American hornbeam tree reaches an average mature height of 20 to 30 ft. (6 – 10 m). The European hornbeam has an average height of 40 to 60 ft. (12 – 20 m).
Hornbeam trees thrive in full sun or partial shade and grow in most types of soils, as long as they are well-drained. The hardy American hornbeam trees grow well in USDA zones 3 through 9. The European hornbeam is winter hardy in zones 4 to 7.
Types of Hornbeam Trees – Identification
Purple Leaf Plum Trees (Prunus cerasifera)
Purple leaf plum trees (Prunus cerasifera) are also calles cherry plum trees
The purple leaf plum tree is a beautiful ornamental flowering tree with dark burgundy or purple leaves, fragrant whitish-pink spring blossoms, and an attractive shape. Also called the cherry plum tree, the purple leaf tree also produces small edible plum-like yellow or red edible fruit. In a garden landscape, the relatively small deciduous tree has many ornamental uses.
The purple leaf plum tree grows between 15 and 25 ft. (4.5 – 8 m) tall and thrives in USDA zones 4 through 9. The easy-to-grow landscape tree grows best in moist but well-drained soil that is moderately fertile. The attractive dark foliage tree performs well in full sun and can tolerate some shade. However, too much shade causes the leaves to turn green.
The cherry plum tree ‘Purple Pony’ is suitable for small, compact gardens. This dwarf plum tree grows 10 to 12 ft. (3 – 3.6 m) tall and wide.
Flowers on purple leaf plum trees are usually the first to appear in spring. The single small pink or white flowers grow in dense clusters, covering the beautiful tree in bright colors. Cherry plum tree leaves are identified by their pointed ovate shape with serrated margins and a deep red or rich purple color. Fruit on purple leaf plum trees is round yellow or red drupes that are juicy plums. The cherry plum fruits are typically ready from mid-July to mid-September.
Purple Leaf Plum Trees: Types, Flowers, Leaves, Bark – Identification
Chinaberry Tree (Melia azedarach)
Chinaberry tree (Melia azedarach)
The chinaberry tree (Melia azedarach) is a fast-growing deciduous tree native to India, Southeast Asia, and Australia. The tree is in the flowering plant genus Melia and the family Meliaceae.
The chinaberry tree is an ornamental tree with small, fragrant purple flowers, long compound leaves, and small yellow berries. A chinaberry tree is recognizable in the landscape by its rounded open crown, brownish-red bark, and bright yellow fall color. In some warm climates, the chinaberry tree is a beautiful shade tree for a garden landscape. However, in other places, this non-native tree is invasive and can take over the landscape.
A mature chinaberry tree grows between 20 and 40 ft. (7 – 12 m) tall and wide. Although not native to the United States, chinaberry trees grow widely in USDA zones 7 through 10.
Chinaberry trees thrive in a wide range of soils. The trees grow in full sun or partial shade and thrive in alkaline or acidic soils. Once established, the non-native tree is relatively drought-tolerant and resistant to disease.
Chinaberry tree also goes by the following names: chinaberry bead tree, pride of India, China ball tree, Persian lilac, Texas umbrella tree, white cedar, or China tree.
Chinaberry Tree (Melia azedarach) – Identification and Care
Palo Verde Trees (Parkinsonia)
Blue palo verde tree (Parkinsonia florida) in bloom
Palo verde is a group of large flowering shrubs or small trees with green branches, yellow pea-like flowers, brown seed pods, and small leaves that appear for a short time after rainfall. This deciduous
flowering desert tree is native to the hot, arid regions of California
, Arizona, and Mexico. The multi-stemmed ornamental tree thrives during drought and is an excellent landscape tree for filtered shade during scorching weather.
Several species of palo verde trees are native to North America. The most common trees in the species are the foothill palo verde which is also called Mexican palo verde (Parkinsonia aculeata), blue palo verde (Parkinsonia florida), and desert museum palo verde (Parkinsonia x ‘Desert Museum’).
Palo verde trees grow between 16 and 40 ft. (5 – 12 m). Most species of palo verde trees have sharp spines or thorns growing on the branches. The exception to this is the desert museum palo verde hybrid, which is a thornless tree. Palo verde trees also have distinctive green bark that create visual appeal.
Palo verde trees are suitable for growing outdoors in USDA zones 8 through 11.
Palo Verde Trees – Identification Guide
Smoke Tree (Cotinus coggygria)
Smoke tree (Cotinus coggygria) flowers are usually vibrant pink hues, but the plumes can be in shades of red, orange, yellow, or creamy-white
The smoke tree is a stunning large shrub or small multi-stemmed tree with eye-catching purple or green foliage and feathery flower clusters resembling puffs of pink smoke. Also called smoke bush, the colorful deciduous tree creates a spectacular visual interest in a garden landscape from spring until fall.
Smoke trees grow 16 to 23 ft. (5 – 7 m) tall and have a spreading, irregular habit. The smoke tree or smoke bush is a deciduous shrub that can be trained to grow as a tree. Cotinus is a suckering shrub-like tree, so to ensure a tree shape, remove all suckers apart from the primary central stem. You should remove the stems throughout the year as they appear.
Varieties of smoke trees are cold-hardy large shrubs that thrive in USDA zones 4 through 9. Smoke trees tend to perform best in full sun to partial shade, which helps maintain their vibrant foliage.
Flowers on the smoke tree are distinctive airy plume-like panicles consisting of small five-petalled flowers. However, the fine hair-like filaments on the spent flower stems are the identifying feature of the plant, giving the smoke tree its fuzzy appearance.
The ‘Royal Purple’ smoke tree is one of the most popular Cotinus plants. The outstanding characteristics of the purple smoke tree are oval to egg-shaped deep purple leaves, clusters of tiny yellow flowers that develop into wispy plumes, and a compact growth habit. The ‘Royal Purple’ smoke tree grows 10 to 15 ft. (3 – 4.5 m) high.
Smoke Tree – Varieties and Care Guide
Laurel Tree (
Laurel tree (Laurus nobilis) is a multi stemmed tree or a large shrub
Laurus nobilis is a multi stemmed evergreen tree or large shrub with aromatic, dark-green, lance-shaped leaves, clusters of pale-yellow flowers, and small black berries. Laurel leaves, or bay leaves, are commonly used to flavor many soups, stews, and sauces.
Also called sweet bay, the plant thrives in warm climates as a tree, potted shrub, or evergreen hedge. Native to the Mediterranean region, a laurel tree grows 23 – 60 ft. (7 – 18 m) tall. Due to its Mediterranean origins, a laurel tree is suitable for growing in USDA zones 8 through 10.
The best place to plant a laurel tree is in an area with full sun and free-draining soil. Sweet bay laurels thrive when they get at least six hours of sunshine daily. However, the evergreen plant will grow just as well in partial shade.
Bay laurel adapts well to many soil types. But the most important factor when planting a bay laurel tree is that the ground is well-draining.
Laurel Tree (Sweet Bay) – Identification and Care Guide
Sourwood Tree (Oxydendrum arboreum)
Sourwood tree in autumn
Sourwood (Oxydendrum arboreum) is a small deciduous tree in the heath family Ericaceae. Also called the sorrel tree, a unique feature of Oxydendrum arboreum is that it’s the only species in the Oxydendrum genus.
This native tree grows throughout the Eastern United States from Florida, Louisiana, and North Carolina north to Pennsylvania.
The name sourwood comes from the tree’s bitter yet edible foliage. Sourwood trees are relatively small, slow-growing, and reach 20 to 30 ft. (6 – 10 m) tall and wide.
The ornamental flowering sourwood tree is famous for its white bell-shaped flowers, green lanceolate leaves that turn deep red in the fall, and gray and reddish-brown patterned bark. Fruits on sourwood trees are small oval, egg-shaped capsules with a yellowish or greenish color that mature to grayish-brown color.
Sourwood trees are hardy in USDA zones 5 through 9. They grow best in well-drained organically rich acidic soil and full sun.
Sourwood Tree – Identification and Care Guide
Hazel Trees (Corylus)
Turkish hazel (Corylus colurna) young and mature trees
Hazel is a group of large deciduous multi-stemmed shrubs or trees in the plant genus
and the birch family
that produce tasty round hazelnuts. Hazel trees and shrubs are identified by their rounded leaves with toothed margins and dangling cylindrical flower clusters called catkins.
The hardy deciduous hazel trees thrives in USDA zones 4 through 9 and perform best in full sun and moist but well-drained organically rich soil. Usually, hazel trees and shrubs produce nuts after two or three years.
While most species of hazels are multi stemmed shrubs, the Turkish Hazel (Corylus colurna) is a deciduous tree with a recognizable pyramidal crown and central trunk.
Turkish hazels are hardy in USDA zones 4 through 7 and grow throughout the United States, apart from Florida, southern Texas, and California. The hardy tree tolerates cold winters, hot summers, drought, wind, and various soil types. The Turkish hazel is a tall, majestic nut tree that grows 40 to 80 ft. (12 to 24 m) tall and has a distinct attractive conical shape.
Hazel Trees and Shrubs – Identification Guide
Black Tupelo Tree (Nyssa sylvatica)
Black tupelo tree (Nyssa sylvatica) is an ornamental deciduous tree that has beautiful fall colors
The black tupelo tree is an attractive, medium-sized ornamental tree in the plant family Nyssaceae, which is native to North America. Also called the black gum or sour gum, the deciduous tree is identified by its oval, dark green glossy leaves, bark resembling alligator skin, clusters of inconspicuous greenish-white flowers, and bluish-black fruits.
The spectacular feature of black tupelo trees is its eye-catching fall foliage, which can turn vibrant orange, bright red, yellow, or purple shades. The most common use for black tupelo trees is an ornamental shade or specimen tree in parks and extensive gardens.
This beautiful tree, with its conical shape, grows between 50 and 80 ft. (15 – 24 m) in ideal conditions. However, the average black tupelo’s height in residential settings is 30 to 50 ft. (10 – 15 m). It is suitable for planting in USDA zones 4 through 9. The growing conditions are full sun, evenly moist, well-drained soils, and shelter from cold winds.
The best location to plant a black tupelo tree is deep, acidic soil that stays evenly moist. Although damp ground is ideal for growing black tupelo, the tree tolerates occasional drought.
Black Tupelo Tree: Identification and Care Guide
Blue Jacaranda (Jacaranda mimosifolia)
is a beautiful ornamental flowering tree with spectacular clusters of intense purple-blue trumpet-shaped flowers. Also called blue jacaranda, the tree has green fern-like leaves, and a spreading umbrella-like canopy.
Jacaranda tree is native to South and Central America and a popular
flowering tree in Florida
Jacaranda tree is a semi-evergreen tree that grows 25 to 50 ft. (7.5 – 15 m) tall and has a spreading rounded crown of 15 to 30 ft. (4.5 – 9 m). The tree has upright branch growth with an open habit.
Jacaranda trees are semi-tropical southern trees that thrive in USDA zones 10 and 11. You may also have success growing a blue jacaranda tree in warmer areas of growing zone 9b.
The identifying feature of the jacaranda tree is its showy lilac-blue flower clusters that bloom in the late spring or early summer. Jacaranda tree has gray-brown, finely scaly bark, brown circular seed pods, and an easily recognizable umbrella canopy covered in pinnately compound, fern-like leaves.
The best location to plant a jacaranda tree is in a place where it can get full sun. It is also vital to plant the tree at least 15 ft. (4.5 m) away from any buildings.
Katsura Tree (Cercidiphyllum japonicum)
Katsura tree (Cercidiphyllum japonicum)
The katsura tree
is a beautiful deciduous tree in the genus Cercidiphyllum and native to Japan and China. Katsura trees have a medium growth rate and mature at a height of 40 to 60 ft. (12 – 18 m) tall and a trunk up to 6.5 ft. (2 m) in diameter.
The weeping katsura tree (Cercidiphyllum japonicum ‘Pendulum’) is a small to medium-sized tree with droopy branches that grows up to 20 ft. (6 m) tall and 15 ft. (4.5 m) wide.
Katsura trees have multiple stems but can be grown as a single-stemmed trees and are identified by their attractive pyramidal rounded crown.
Katsura trees are also identified by their heart-shaped finely serrated dark green leaves, that turn an impressive golden-yellow color in autumn and emit a sugary, caramel aroma. The deciduous, multi-trunk tree also has recognizable grayish-brown bark that peels in thin strips and pinkish-red flower buds.
The katsura tree thrives in USDA zones 4 through 8 and performs best in full sun to partial sun in moist, well-drained soil. Some protection from the afternoon sun is preferred in hot, sunny climates.
Royal Poinciana (Delonix regia)
Royal Poinciana (Delonix regia)
is a stunning flowering tree in the genus Delonix and pea family Fabaceae. The flame tree grows 30 to 40 ft. (9 – 12 m) tall and 40 to 70 ft. (12 – 21 m) wide. Due to its vast spread, the flame tree is an excellent blooming shade tree for hot, humid climates.
Also called the flame of the forest, peacock flower tree, flamboyant tree, or flame tree, the royal poinciana is known for its masses of showy red-orange flowers in late spring and early summer, fern-like leaves and mahogany
Royal poinciana trees thrive in USDA zones 10 through 12 and are common throughout Florida, southern Texas, Central America, and the humid regions of Mexico.
Although classified as a tropical evergreen tree, royal poinciana has deciduous foliage in areas with a mildly cool winter or dry season.
The royal poinciana tree has a fast growth rate and increases in height about 5 ft. (1.5 m) per year. After planting, it can take a young royal poinciana tree 5 to 12 years to start flowering.
Ironwood Tree (Ostrya virginiana)
Ironwood tree (Ostrya virginiana)
The ironwood tree (Ostrya virginiana)
is a small to medium sized deciduous tree identified by its light green, pointed, lance-shaped leaves with doubly-serrated margins, dangling catkins and hop-like fruits, and light to dark brown shaggy, narrow strips of bark.
Ironwood tree is also called the American hop hornbeam and belongs to the genus Ostrya in the birch family Betulaceae. The ironwood tree grows 20 to 40 ft. (6 – 12 m) tall and up to 30 ft. (9 m) wide.
Ironwood trees grow slowly, and it will take 15 years to grow 10 to 15 ft. (3 – 4.5 m) tall. Young ironwoods have a typical pyramidal shape that gradually becomes more oval and rounded as it matures.
Ironwood trees thrive in USDA zones 3 to 9. The cold-hardy tree performs well in all growing conditions — from deep shade to full sun. As long as the soil is well-drained and not prone to flooding, ironwoods grow well in most soils.
Rowan Tree (Sorbus)
The American rowan tree (Sorbus americana) is also called the American mountain ash
The rowan tree
is a small to medium ornamental flowering tree with an attractive crown consisting of pinnately compound leaves. Rowan trees are known for their showy clusters of white spring flowers followed by colorful orange or red berries appearing in the fall. Cold-hardy deciduous rowan trees are found throughout North America and Europe.
The two main species of rowan tree are the American rowan tree (Sorbus americana) and the European rowan tree (Sorbus aucuparia).
The American rowan tree grows 15 to 35 ft. (4.5 – 10 m) tall and wide. Also called the American mountain ash, this rowan species thrives in USDA zones 2 through 6. The American rowan performs best in full sun but will also tolerate some shade during the middle of the day.
The European rowan tree is a small to medium deciduous multi-stemmed tree that grows 20 to 40 ft. (6 – 12 m) tall and 8 to 25 ft. (2.4 – 7.6 m) wide.
Also called the European mountain ash, the European rowan tree performs best in USDA zones 3 through 7. However, the small decorative tree may struggle in the coldest zones unless planted in full sun.
Boxelder Tree (Acer negundo)
Boxelder tree is a deciduous multi-trunked tree which is cold hardy and tolerates poor wet soil
(also written box elder) is a fast-growing, short-lived deciduous tree native to North America. The tree is a species of maple tree in the genus Acer and soapberry family Sapindaceae. Due to their fast growth and suckering nature, boxwoods are sometimes considered invasive or weedy.
Boxelder trees grow between 35 and 80 ft. (10 – 25 m) tall. A characteristic of boxelder trees is their multiple trunks that can form dense thickets like huge shrubs. Therefore, regular pruning is necessary to remove suckers.
Boxelders thrive in USDA zones 2 to 10, meaning they are incredibly cold-hardy. However, they are also tolerant of drought and withstand the hot sun. The medium-sized boxelder thrives in full sun or part shade and performs well in most soils.
The identifying features of a boxelder tree are its thick, multi-stemmed growth, irregular canopy, and dense foliage. In addition, this medium-sized tree has bright green, lance-shaped ovate leaves,
papery winged samaras that flutter from the tree like helicopters
, and small yellow-green flowers that bloom in the spring.
Floss Silk Tree (
Floss Silk Tree (Ceiba speciosa)
The floss silk tree is an unusual tropical thorny tree with spiky conical prickles on its erect trunk. The floss silk tree’s horizontal branches are also covered in prickles and grow to form an attractive rounded canopy. The tree’s dark green leaves contrast with the beautiful pink hibiscus-like flowers.
The floss silk tree grows up to 82 ft. (25 m) high and it has a bottle-shaped trunk that bulges near the base. The floss tree has pink flowers, with creamy-white and yellow centers and they have five slender petals in a star shape.
The floss silk tree is easily identified by its grayish conical prickles covering the cylindrical green trunk.
Sandbox Tree (
Sandbox Tree (Hura crepitans)
The sandbox tree is a spiky tree with smooth brown bark covered in extremely sharp, pyramid-shaped pointed prickles. The sandbox tree produces small red petal-less flowers, large ovate leaves up to 2 ft. (0.6 m) wide, and small roundish pumpkin-like fruits that explode when ripe.
The sandbox tree can be identified by its sharp, prickly protrusions on its trunk and its roundish pumpkin-like fruit.
The sandbox tree grows 200 ft. (60 m) tall and thrives in wet soils in USDA zones 10 and 11.
Devil’s Walking Stick Tree (
Devil’s Walking Stick (Aralia spinosa)
The devil’s walking stick is a small thorny deciduous tree with slender stems covered in sharp brown to tan spines. The spiny tree has large leaves measuring up to 45” (120 cm) long and a rounded, umbrella-shaped crown. The tree blooms in late summer with small, creamy-white flowers that develop into purplish-black berries.
With its spiny stems, the devil’s walking stick grows up to 26 ft. (8 m) tall.
The devil’s walking stick tree can be identified by its huge tropical leaves and stems with stout, sharp spines.
Kapok tree (Ceiba pentandra)
Kapok is a species of large tree with sharp thorns growing extensively on its bark. Kapok trees have thorny buttress roots, large palmate leaves, and clusters of tiny yellowish-white flowers. The unique characteristic of the tree is its cotton-like downy substance surrounding the seed pods.
Kapok trees are giant tropical trees that thrive in USDA zones 10 to 12. The
can grow 75 to 125 ft. (22 – 38 m) tall and up to 75 ft. (22 m) wide.
The thorny kapok tree is identified by its straight trunk covered in stout, sharp thorns, palmate compound leaves, and creamy-white flower clusters consisting of bell-shaped flowers.
Chittamwood Tree (
Chittamwood Tree (Sideroxylon lanuginosum)
The Chittamwood tree is a small, shrub-like tree with thorny branches. The deciduous Chittamwood tree can be identified by its spiny, stiff, woolly branches, oblong green leaves with fuzzy undersides, and clusters of purplish-black fruits. The multi-stemmed Chittamwood tree grows up to 40 ft. (12 m) tall and has a straight trunk and rounded, narrow crown.
Other common names of Chittamwood tree include woolly buckthorn, gum bumelia, and gum bully.
Osage Orange (
Osage Orange (Maclura pomifera)
The osage orange tree is a mid-sized, multi-stemmed tree with sharp thorns on its interlacing branches. This thorny deciduous tree has a rounded crown of shiny, dark green leaves and small greenish spring flowers. Due to the nasty thorns on the small shrub-like tree, the tree can be used as a security hedge or
The identifying feature of osage orange tree is its large orange-like round yellowish-green fruits. The unusual round, inedible fruits are about the size of a baseball.
Osage orange trees grow 25 to 60 ft. (7.5 – 18 m) tall. The osage orange treethrives in USDA zones 4 to 9.
Podocarpus Trees (Podocarpus macrophyllus and Podocarpus gracilior)
Podocarpus trees: Podocarpus macrophyllus (left) and Podocarpus gracilior (right)
are types of conifers in the family Podocarpaceae with dense evergreen foliage.
Podocarpus macrophyllus is a slow-growing small to medium-sized evergreen tree which has upright, pyramidal growth and grows to between 20 and 40 ft. (6 – 12 m) high.
Podocarpus macrophyllus trees thrive in rich, slightly acidic soil that has excellent drainage. They don’t need much watering and are relatively drought-resistant. Podocarpus macrophyllus trees thrive in zones 7 – 9.
The species Podocarpus macrophyllus also goes by the names fern pine, yew plum pine, and Buddhist pine. Although the Podocarpus plant is commonly called the Japanese yew, it’s not a true member of the Taxaceae family, which the yew belongs to.
Another type of podocarpus tree is Podocarpus gracilior which is a medium-sized evergreen conifer with a pyramidal shape. Also called weeping podocarpus trees or African fern trees, the tree has soft, dense evergreen foliage. The slow-growing shade tree grows up to 40 ft. (12 m) high. Podocarpus weeping trees thrive in zones 9 – 11.
Manzanita Tree (
Big berry manzanita (Arctostaphylos glauca)
are a group of small trees with shrubby growth belonging to the flowering plant genus Arctostaphylos.
The trees are native to the western coast of the United States and grow in USDA zones 8 through 10. There are around 60 species of manzanita trees, all of which have evergreen foliage apart from one.
Manzanita trees are attractive flowering plants with eye-catching red bark. The small ornamental trees bloom with bell-shaped pale pink or white flowers. The manzanita flowers are followed by small edible berries. However, the most attractive feature of the evergreen small trees is the distinctive reddish-brown or mahogany bark covering twisted, gnarled branches.
The largest species of manzanita trees, like the big berry manzanita (Arctostaphylos glauca), grow as tall as 20 ft. (6 m).
Manzanitas are valuable trees for dry landscapes because they are suitable for growing in various soil types and tolerate full sun and drought.
101 Different Types of Trees (2023 List: Names, Species, Photos & Details) - Home Stratosphere
It’s time to start getting curious about the different types of trees. These gentle giants have been our neighbors for as long as the human race has existed. They live a life of different in function and purpose, but the surviving elements between us are strikingly similar.
Trees live on an entirely different time scale than we do. Old growth forests prove to us that trees can outlive us tenfold, and this patience is exactly what allows them to thrive.
But if we get down to the nitty gritty, we discover that just like us, trees communicate, eat, exist in families, learn, adapt, thrive, and perish. Only each minute for us, is extended to a year for them.
So in celebration of trees, we thought it necessary to dive in to a very small fraction of some incredible trees.
Below you will find:
a list of trees
names of trees
species of trees
examples of trees
photos of trees
Welcome to 101 Types of Trees.
Types of Mesquite Trees
Types of Redbud Trees
Types of Fig Trees
Types of Palm Trees
Types of Cotton Wood Trees
Types of Fruit Trees
What is a River Red Gum Tree
Types of Heliotrope Flowers
Different Types of Trees
For the sake of organization, we’ve divided the trees into two main categories:
Deciduous tree types
Deciduous trees are also referred to as hardwoods; this type of tree has leaves that will change color and eventually shed come fall time. The tree will be bare for the entire winter. Once spring arrives, new leaves will take their place. Deciduous trees will commonly have broadleaves.
Deciduous trees do this so prepare for winter months. There is not enough sunlight in the winter to allow for efficient photosynthesis, and so trees go dormant during cold months. During this dormancy period they are still alive, but don’t put any energy towards growth.
Evergreen tree types
Evergreen trees will be green all year round despite the changing seasons. Although some varieties of evergreen trees do shed their leaves, it is not an annual or seasonal occurrence. It is usually due to an unexpected environmental happening.
Most evergreen green trees are also conifers. Coniferous trees possess needles and cones instead of flat and delicate leaves. However, there is a small handful of coniferous trees that are deciduous!
But the question then arises “what is the importance of understanding the different types?”
If you are looking into
of any space, it is important to know what the trees will look during the different seasons. Since trees are what ultimately add beauty to a garden because of their glorious look, it is important to plant a mix of deciduous and evergreen trees.
Apart from the aesthetics, having trees placed correctly lessens the cooling and heating costs of a home.
Otherwise, it is worth it to learn about different types of trees simply to gain more knowledge about our slow and silent neighbors. The art of tree and plant identification is a dying skill, but it is time for it to be revived!
Being armored with this kind of information allows one to feel prepared when on forest walks, and encourages deeper curiosity for the things we see every day.
Types of Deciduous Trees
1. The Apple Tree (
Learn more about the characteristics of the Apple Tree here.
What better place to start this journey, than with the apple tree. The apple tree represents so many things, and these trees have become integral to farming practices all over the planet.
Apple trees are of the deciduous variety, and they prefer to grow in moist, rich, and well drained
, which is very common for
Apple trees are rather short, and will only grow to be between 2 and 5 meters tall. They are known for having lovely white/pink flowers that emerge at the same of the spring foliage. Apple tree leaves are alternately arranged on a twig and are a very dark green color.
Apple trees are grown and cultivated all over the world. Commercial groves have been around for centuries, and the lovely apple fruit that these trees produce could possibly be one of the most iconic and important
known to the human race!
They go into makes all sorts of desserts, jams, butters, and make a nutritious snack all on their own.
2. The Pear Tree (
Read more on Pear Trees here.
Carrying right along with fruit trees, we present the pear tree. Pear trees prefer to have cold temperatures to achieve their special sweetness, and they are native to the temperate regions of Asia, North Africa, and Europe. There are over 3000 varieties of pear tree.
These trees are medium sized deciduous trees, and will grow to be anywhere between 10 and 17 meters tall. They have simple leaves that are alternately arranged on a stem, and are a deep green color with a glossy sheen. They are also known for having beautiful
Commercially harvested pear tree groves are used to produce fruit, juices, jams, and many more delicious items. What you may not have known, is that pear tree wood is also used to make woodwind instruments, and customized furniture as well!
3. The Peach Tree (
Discover more about Peach Trees here.
When we think of pears, we immediately then think of peaches.
are actually native to northwestern China, and since then have been cultivated all over the world. Their scientific name,
, comes from the very popular cultivation of the peach tree in Persia.
Peach trees are members of the same family as the
tree, apricot tree, and cherry tree, which is the
family. They are only about 7 meters tall, with long lanceolate green leaves.
They develop lovely pink flowers, and of course are best known for their delectable stone fruit, the peach!
Peach trees prefer to grow in either dry, continental locations, or in temperature climates. Like the pear tree, the peach tree also has chilling requirements in order to achieve proper ripeness and sweetness.
Subtropical and tropical regions do not have these natural chilling requirements, and will therefore not grow in warmer places (except if it is at a high altitude).
4. The Banyan Tree (
Discover the characteristics of Banyan Trees here.
The banyan tree both a deciduous and evergreen tree. When fall comes, the leaves do not change color but merely fall off. The banyan is part of the
fig tree family
, and it bears fruit in the form of a syconium (this is an enlarged, pitless fruit with multiple ovaries inside).
Native to tropical and subtropical climates, the banyan tree is usually found in places like Pakistan, Nepal, India, Sri Lanka, China, Taiwan, Central America, South America, and a few tropical places in the United States as well.
The banyan tree begins its life as an epiphyte. This means that the seed will germinate and thrive in the crevice of another tree or plant. Seeds that fall to the forest floor will often be eaten before it can ever grow into a tree.
Eventually, the banyan tree will overtake the host tree and kill it entirely. This is why the banyan tree has been nicknamed “the strangler fig”.
This incredible type of tree has aerial prop roots, meaning that they grow in shallow and swampy soils, but span a larger surface area. This is how that enormous trunk can be properly supported.
The leaves of the banyan tree are enormous, thick, and leather-like in texture. Locals will actually use the leaves of this tree as plates!
5. The Common Fig Tree (
Read all about Fig Trees here.
The common fig tree is a species of flowering plant that is native to the Mediterranean and western Asia. It is part of the mulberry family, and has been naturalized in North America as well.
They prefer to grow in deep and moist soil, though they have been known to grow in rocky dry locations as well.
These are small trees, sometimes called shrubs, and will grow to be between 7 and 10 meters tall. They possess very fragrant waxy leaves as well as attractive flowers. They have white, smooth bark, and are of course best known for their delicious and fleshy fruit.
have been cultivated since ancient times, and there are records of this tree being farmed in wild, dry, and sunny locations for thousands of years. Today the common fig tree is cultivated all over the world for its delicious fruit.
6. The Black Ash Tree (
Discover the different types of Black Ash trees here.
The black ash tree is another deciduous variety that commonly occurs in swamps or other water-logged soils. They are native all over eastern Canada and north eastern America, in provinces and states like Manitoba, Newfoundland, Virginia, and Illinois.
The black ash will grow up to 20 metres in height, with a trunk of around 24 inches in width. The bark of this tree is a dark grey color, corky in texture, that tends to fissure as it ages. Its leaves are pinnately compounded, and in the winter will sport lovely dark brown, velvety buds.
The fruit of the black ash tree is of the samara variety, meaning it is a winged pod. They look rather dazzling as the fall to the earth.
Unfortunately, the black ash tree is on the verge of extinction due to an infestation of the invasive species: the emerald ash borer. This nasty little bug has managed to kill off 7.5 billion ash trees already, and there will likely be no more after the decade is over.
This is particularly detrimental to frog species who live in shared areas as well.
The leaves of the black ash tree will fall into ponds where tadpoles live, and that is their main source of food. Other types of leaves are too rich in tannins, which are indigestible to frogs. So if there are no more black ash trees, the frog population is also directly threatened.
The wood of the black ash tree is used by humans in the form of electric guitars and bass manufacturing. Apparently this wood has excellent resonant qualities!
In Native American cultures, the black ash is an excellent option for basket weaving, as the wood does not having connecting fibers holding the growth rings together.
7. The White Ash Tree (
White ash trees are very similar to their sibling, the black ash variety. One of the only differences is where they grow, and the colors of their leaves. The white ash prefers to grow in mesophytic hardwood forests (not too hot or wet, not too cold or dry) around sugar
White ash trees can be found all over North America from Nova Scotia in Canada, to Minnesota, Florida, Wyoming, and Colorado.
The white ash gets its name from its leaves’ glaucous underside. This is a naturally occurring grey/blue metallic color that can also be found on certain types of beetles and bugs! The white ash leaves will turn a very vibrant red and yellow in the fall, with lovely compound leaves.
The white ash suffers from the same threat as the black ash does, the emerald ash borer. Although the white ash does seem to appear slightly more resilient against this invasive species than its siblings, the white ash is also on the critically endangered list.
Due to the extremely dense and straight grained wood, white ash is one of the most cultivated trees in North America. Its wood is used in many areas, from manufacturing baseball bats, to furniture, to flooring.
8. The Neem Tree (
The neem is both a deciduous and evergreen tree, and it is often referred to as either a nimtree, or an Indian Lilac. It belongs to the family
, or mahogany. It is considered evergreen, however in severe droughts there is a chance they may shed their leaves.
The neem tree is usually found in tropical and semi tropical regions, and is known for its resistance to draught.
It prefers annual rainfall of around 800ml, with temperature hovering around 80 degree Fahrenheit, never falling below 39. Locations that possess all of the conditions are Iran, India, Laos, Cambodia, Bengal, Thailand, Myanmar, and Vietnam.
The neem tree grows incredibly fast, and will shoot up to an impressive 40 metres in its lifetime. Its branches are spread very wide and high, and on the ends of those you will find pinnate, dark green leaflets.
In the spring it will explode with white, bisexual flowers, each branch sprouting a baffling 300 flowers per season!
This tree is utilized for its shade, as it is one of the only shade giving trees that is able to grow in these harsh regions. They’re often found around public spaces like temples and schools.
The neem tree was actually labelled as a weed, and is able to spread overwhelmingly quickly. For this reason, it is illegal to transport any neem seeds or plants for risk of it becoming invasive in a foreign region.
9. The Bigtooth Aspen Tree (
Discover the different types of Aspen trees here.
Also referred to as the large-tooth aspen, American aspen, or Canadian poplar, this thin and disorienting tree is native to eastern North America. It is a deciduous tree with strange leaves, which is where it gets its scientific name. Populus grandidentata is latin for sharp teeth, basically.
Found in Virginia, Maine, Cape Breton, Nova Scotia, Manitoba and beyond, the bigtooth aspen can adapt to a large variety of
It is abundant in loamy sand, but is also capable of thriving on alpine, rocky sites (hello, Colorado!). They would prefer to exist in well aerated soils, but they definitely do no tolerate shade.
Seed production begins around 10 years for the bigtooth aspen, and each year the tree will release around a million seeds! Another way this tree reproduces is through suckers.
If an aspen dies, suckers grow from the roots and eventually evolve into little clones of their mother tree. Kind of alien, huh?
These trees live short and fast, but provide necessary shade and food for their animal neighbors. Humans utilize bigtooth aspen
wood in the form of pallets
, log homes, chopsticks, and ladders. This is because their wood is straight grained with very fine texture.
The tree has thick leaves that tremble and clatter in the wind, with thin and smooth olive green bark that eventually turns white. In maturity, the bark will then start fading to grey and become thick and riddled with strange grooves.
10. The Quaking Aspen Tree (
Discover the different types of Aspen trees here.
The quaking aspen is a very different tree than its sibling, the bigtooth aspen. This particular species of deciduous tree is very tolerant to cold winters and short summers, and that is way it can be found in the coolest, most temperate regions of Europe and Asia.
Spanning from Iceland to the British Isles, Scandinavia, Russia, Spain, Turkey, North Korea, and Japan, the quaking aspen prefers to grow at high altitude in mountain ranges.
This tree is highly demanding of water and sunlight, and for that reason it grows extremely quickly to beat out the canopy competition.
The quaking aspen can grow to be up to 40 metres tall with a trunk 1 metre in diameter. The bark is a light greenish-grey in color, that is smooth in their youth, and grows more rough with lenticels (porous tissue) as it ages.
This tree gets its name because of the way the trees clatter and tremble at the slightest breeze. It’s leaves are small and round with toothed edges (like its sibling, the bigtooth aspen).
*A nickname for the quaking aspen is
langues des femmes
which translates to “the tongues of women”. Decipher that as you wish.
This aspen reproduces by either wind pollination, or by root sprouts. Funnily enough, the reason why aspens grow so close to one another, is that the suckers sprouting from the roots will grow anywhere from 40 metres from its mother tree, regardless of how much space there is.
The wood of the quaking aspen is rather soft and light, and so its used by humans for lumber and matches, and it very popular in the pulp and paper industry as well. The aspen is also an important habitat for insect and fungus species.
11. The Mahogany Tree (
This variety of mahogany tree goes by many names; American mahogany, Cuban mahogany (this will make sense later), small-leaved mahogany, and West-Indian Mahogany.
This semi-deciduous, semi-evergreen tree loses a portion of its leaves in the colder seasons, and the new growth starts its life out as a lovely reddish-pink color. Hence the reason for it being semi-deciduous, semi-evergreen.
This variety of mahogany tree is native to south Florida, and the Caribbean islands of Cuba, Jamaica, Bahamas, and the Dominican Republic. As you may have guessed, this tree prefers to live in tropical climates with ample sunlight and ample moisture.
This is considered as a medium sized tree, growing to heights of 25 meters with larger pinnate leaves.
As mentioned before, when the leaves first sprout they are a blood red color, and quickly change to a dark green. Mahogany trees produce fruit in wood, winged pods that contain their seeds.
All of those nicknames that
has received all comes from the way that it has been cultivated over the years.
The first ever recorded us was in 1514 to build the oldest church in the West Indies, and ever since then
has been a staple in fine furniture making and royal rooms.
Mahogany is also a very coveted choice of material for the making of high end instruments, such as mandolins, marimbas, and guitars. However, due to irresponsible over harvesting, much of the mahogany available today comes from a different species, and is lower quality.
12. The Basswood Tree (
Learn about Basswood Trees here.
The species of this tree comes from the
family, and the basswood tree is the only representative of its genus in the western hemisphere!
Otherwise known as American basswood, or American linden, it is a large deciduous tree that grows faster than any other North American hardwood trees. Not only that, this monster has a 200 year life expectancy.
The basswood tree grows in mesic soils with a rather high pH. A mesic soil is a soil that is neither too wet or dry, and is well aerated. These types of soils occur in Manitoba and Quebec in Canada, and in New England, Oklahoma, Minnesota, and Nebrasksa, just to name a few.
This tree grows to be a baffling 37 metres tall with a trunk diameter of 1.5 metres. Its leaves are quite large, simply shaped with alternating ovate and cordate shaping (oval and heart with wide bases). It’s flowers are small, white, and highly fragrant, which are actually edible!
The basswood tree has wood that is very pale in color, free of knots but also doesn’t split easily. In the past this wood has been used to make baskets, fishing nets, and rope. It is also a popular choice of wood to manufacturing guitars as well.
The foliage and flowers of this tree have also been used for medicinal purposes. Usually dried and then made into tea, basswood flowers help with illnesses, inflammation, headaches, and muscle pain.
13. The American Beech Tree (
Discover the different types of American Beech trees here.
Indicative of from its name, the American beech tree can only be found in certain parts of North America. If you want to get specific about it, it only occurs in the south of Ontario and Nova Scotia in Canada, and in north Texas, north Florida in the United States.
The American beech is a deciduous tree that grows to be anywhere between 20-35 meters in its lifetime. That being said, it’s a super slow growing tree and will only reach about 6 meters in 20 years! However, that process can be sped up if it exists in perfect conditions.
Those conditions are moist, and well drained acidic
. These are usually found on slopes or rich bottomlands. It grows alongside yellow birch, sugar maple, and eastern hemlock in forests that have reached ecological succession.
The American beech is strongly intolerant of too much sun, dry soil and any sort of urban pollution.
This variety of tree is largely ornamental, due to the fact that it is so slow growing. It’s a very hardwood that is difficult to split, but it is quite flexible. This is why it’s a great choice for bentwood furniture – it will bend quite easily went steamed without breaking.
14. The European Beech Tree (
Discover more about European Beech Trees here.
The European beech tree is also known as being the common beech tree. These deciduous trees are part of the
family, and will live to be 150-200 years old. They grow in places like Sweden, Sicily, France, England, Portugal, Spain, and Turkey.
The only growing requirements they really have is soil that is well drained, and air that is humid. They are most likely to be found growing on fertile hillsides.
European beech trees are very large trees, and can commonly grow up to heights of 50 meters! They have alternately arranged on a stem and simple.
Leaves are a very dark green color, and actually persist on the tree until the following spring, instead of falling in the fall like most other deciduous trees tend to do. This is a process called
These trees are mostly used as ornamental trees in large parks and gardens. They tend to get quite messy because of their fallen leaves and beechnuts, but they are still a town favorite. European beech wood is used to manufacture furniture and flooring.
15. The Tulip Tree (
Discover the different types of Tulip trees here.
Here we have a deciduous mammoth that can grow up to 60 meters in its lifetime! This is the largest tree so far in the list. Part of the
, tulip trees grow either all over North America, or in China and Vietnam.
They appreciate soil that is mildly acidic, temperate climates, and very moist soil. They are very easily recognized firstly by their height, but also because of their unique and large leaves. The leaves are shaped into four distinct lobes that vary from 8-10 inches wide.
A tree with very deep and reaching roots, they also sprout flowers in the spring around 4 inches large, a striking array of yellow, green, and orange flare. The flowers are the reason for the trees’ name, which strongly resemble
The wood of the tulip trees is very stable with a fine grain, making it quite easy to work with. It is most commonly used in inexpensive cabinet and furniture framing. Since it’s not a particularly attractive grain of wood, it is reserved for the foundation.
Birches are known as being pioneer trees. This means that when some sort of disaster occurs (most commonly forest fires), birches are the first tree to germinate and repopulate that area. They are survivors, but they don’t live for very long.
There are several varieties of birch tree, but we’re going to focus specifically on the black bitch, gray birch, paper birch, and yellow birch. These trees have many similarities, and many surprising differences. One birch only lives to be about 50, another can live to be almost 400!
16. The Black Birch Tree (
A black birch is a medium sized deciduous tree that is commonly found in east North America, mostly in southern Maine west and southernmost Ontario region.
However, they do also occur in the Appalachian Mountains. They grow to be up 35 meters in height, and the oldest one known to exist is 368!
Birch trees prefer to grow in soil that is rather acidic and not too dry or too moist. They prefer to live in climates that have moderately hot summers, but they can survive easily in colder winters as well.
The wood of the black birch tree is quite hard, strong, coarse grained, and heavy. It is dark brown with
. It is easiest to recognize the black birch by its bark — the paper-y kind that you can strip off and write a note one.
Black birch wood is commonly used for furniture and fuel. Black birch wood is a common substitute for expensive furniture woods such as mahogany and cherry. Moreover, the oil extracted from its twigs is used for flavorings and medicinal purposes.
The black birch can also be tapped for syrup, just like a sugar maple! However, the sap must be gathered 3 times more often, and the syrup is much stronger with more of a molasses flavor.
17. The Gray Birch Tree (
Discover the different types of Gray Birch trees here.
Also of the deciduous variety, the gray birch is native to several provinces in Canada, such as Nova Scotia, and Ontario. In the United States they occur in Indiana, Virginia, North Carolina, New Jersey, and Pennsylvania.
Unlike its siblings, the gray birch actually prefers to grow in soil that is low in nutrients and is rather dry. It is most often found on mountainsides or in mixed woodlands. This variety only lives to be about 30 years old, and is the first tree to appear after a forest fire.
They grow to be between 20-30 meters tall, and are topped off with a crown of slender branches. The leaves are dark green, and oval shaped that turn a blazing yellow in the fall and then fall off in the winter.
Gray birches have smooth and thin bark, but doesn’t quite peel off in the same clean way that the black or paper birch does.
The wood of the gray birch tree is medium hard, and is a prime choice in the manufacturing of furniture, spools, and furniture. Because of its high oil content, it also makes excellent firewood, even when wet.
18. The Paper Birch Tree (
Discover the different types of Paper Birch trees here.
The paper birch tree is a medium sized, deciduous, and short-lived tree that is commonly found in North America.
It earned its name as “paper” birch because the trunk of this tree is thin and white and it peels off as paper would. This tree is shade intolerant and it can grow in many different kinds of soils.
A paper birch tree flourishes the most when it is planted alongside streams, swamps, and lakes. The wood of this tree is strong, light, hard, tough and light brown in color. The wood is used to make wood pulp, woodenware, and spools.
In nature, the paper birch tree is a very important food source for moose during the winter. Although the bark is low in nutrients, there is enough of it to sustain them throughout the harsh and barren seasons.
The bark of this tree is reddish brown or golden when, but it soon turns into chalky white as the tree matures. The trunk is covered with thin shards of papery layers that peel away like shreds of paper.
Leaves are similar to the leaves of its siblings, alternately arranged dark green leaves that end in a tip.
19. The Yellow Birch Tree (
Discover the different types of Yellow Birch trees here.
A yellow birch tree is a medium sized, deciduous tree that is native to northeastern North America. The growing range extends from Newfoundland to Prince Edward Island, from Minnesota to the Appalachian Mountains.
It successfully grows on moist and rich uplands when it has
and beech trees in its surrounding as they all flourish together.
The wood is coarse-grained, hard, strong, and light brown in color. It is commonly used for
, woodenware, flooring, furniture, airplanes, interior design, and in agriculture. It is a source of fuelwood as well for anyone who may come across it.
The bark of this tree is bright yellowish silver when it is young, and as it grow, it begins to peel off. It then unveils a dark brownish red color. The leaves of this tree are quite similar to the leaves of a black birch tree but the flipside of the leaves is a little hairy, just like its siblings.
20. The Butternut Tree (
Discover the different types of Butternut trees here.
A butternut tree is a slow growing, deciduous tree that is native to southeast Canada and eastern United States. It will only grow in regions that don’t get too hot, and so they tend to stick to high alpine areas.
They require soils that are slightly moist, well drained, with moderate acidity levels.
The wood of the butternut tree is soft but not strong, light, coarse grained, durable, easy to work with and light brown in color. Butternut would is a first choice for wood carvers, and it popular in furniture manufacturing as well.
The oils from butternut trees prove to have medicinal qualities, and butternut bark has traditionally been used for
The bark of the butternut tree is light gray in color and quite smooth when it is young, but as the tree matures the color of the bark changes along with its texture.
The butternut tree has simple leaves that are stem less and long with pointed tips. The leaves are downy, and more of a yellow-lime green color.
21. The Black Cherry Tree (
Discover the different types of Black Cherry trees here.
A black cherry tree (often referred to as a shrub) is a fast growing, medium sized, deciduous tree that is widespread and commonly found in North and South America. This tree is considered as the most valuable cherry tree found in New York.
It requires growing in moist hillsides or rich soiled bottomlands, but it can be grown in drier locations as well. The wood of this tree is strong, light, and hard, coarse-grainedand pale brownish red heartwood.
The wood of the black cherry tree is always in demand because of its
and it is used for tools, fence posts, cabinet making, interior design, and tires. Apart from being a great source of timber, many wildlife creatures feed off this tree.
Black cherry bark is red brown in color at first, that is smooth and and banded, resembling a birch. As the bark starts to mature, it becomes darker and rough. The leaves of the black cherry tree are quite simple with pointed tips, and are glossy and deep green in color.
22. The Pin Cherry Tree (
Discover the different types of Pin Cherry trees here.
A pin cherry is a small cherry tree that is often considered a shrub because of its small size. It is native to North America and it is most commonly found in the different provinces of Canada. This tree thrives in abandoned lands because it is a tree that is the first to reproduce in a disturbed area.
The reason why this tree is valued is that it has the ability to protect soil in wastelands so when other trees are planted, they can establish and flourish to their fullest potential.
The wood of the pin cherry tree is soft, coarse-grained, light, and light brown heartwood. The wood of this tree is barely ever used commercially.
The bark of the pin cherry tree possesses a bright red brown color and it is smooth with breathing pores. As it starts to mature, the bark starts to get rough around the base of the tree.
Just like the tree, the leaves of this tree are small and simple, they have a pointed tip and they are broader compared to the black cherry tree leaves.
23. The Sour Cherry Tree (
Learn about Sour Cherry Trees here.
The sour cherry tree is a species of cherry tree that is native to Europe and southwest Asia. They are also sometimes referred to as a tart cherry tree, or a dwarf cherry tree. Like other cherry species, they prefer to well drained, rich in nutrients, and moist soils.
These trees are quite small, growing anywhere between 4 and 10 meters in height. They grow very twiggy branches and are closely related to the sweet cherry tree (
). Though the produce a drupe fruit (cherry) that is much more acidic and sour.
Sour cherry trees are too small to have their wood used commercially, and so their main use comes from their fruit. Sour cherries are used for both cooking and baking, in cakes, tarts, pies, and sour cherries are also used for making liqueurs and fermented
24. The Sweet Cherry Tree (
Read more about Sweet Cherry Trees here.
The sweet cherry tree is a deciduous tree that is native to Europe, Western Asia, the British Isles, Morocco, Tunisia, Norway, and Iran. These trees have become naturalized in North America and Australia as well. Cherry trees like to grow in fertile, moist, and well drained soils.
These trees grow to be 15-32 meters in height. They have smooth purple/brown bark, and shiny simply leaves that grow alternately on a twig.
Sweet cherry trees are also known for their very lovely
. They produce very delicious bright red drupes that are eaten by birds, mammals, and humans alike.
Sweet cherry wood is sometimes used as timber, and can be made into cabinets and musical instruments. These trees are mostly used for their delicious fruit or ornamentally. The wood is also a popular option for
25. The American Chestnut Tree (
Discover the different types of Chestnut trees here.
The American chestnut tree is a large sized, fast growing, deciduous tree that is commonly found in North America, hence its name. The American chestnut tree is a subspecies of the chestnut tree. Other popular chestnut trees are found in
and Asia (especially in Japan and
The wood of the American chestnut tree is popularly used by farmers because of how rapidly it grows. The wood of this tree is soft, light, coarse grained, durable when it touches soil, and red brown in color. The American chestnut tree wood is commonly used for posts.
The bark of this tree is red brown and smooth, but as it gets older, the color becomes darker and the bark begins to break a little. The leaves of the American chestnut tree are small, oval, and light brown in color. The leaves of this tree are similar to the leaves of other chestnut trees.
26. The Eastern Cottonwood Tree (
Discover the different types of Cottonwood trees here.
An eastern cottonwood tree is a large, fast growing, short lived, deciduous tree that is commonly found in the United States of America, Canada, and Mexico. It is a tree species that grows best in rich and moist soil locations.
The eastern cottonwood tree generally flourishes alongside lakes and streams. This tree can be planted anywhere in the country except for places with high elevations.
Eastern cottonwood trees are considered as ornamental trees because of their appeal. Although, this tree successfully adds aesthetic value to any location, its downy hairs tend to clog sewers and drains. The wood of this tree is weak, light, soft, and dark brown in color.
warps around the wood when there is not enough water content in the roots. The wood is commonly used for boxes and pulp. If this tree is ever cut down, it tends to grow back really fast.
The bark of this tree is light green yellow in color and smooth. However, as it matures, it turns into an ashy gray color and becomes more rough in texture.
The leaves of the eastern cottonwood tree are simple, triangular shaped and fairly long. They feature incurved teeth along the margin. In the summer, the eastern cottonwood sheds incredible amounts of downy cotton that contains its seeds.
27. The Cucumber Tree (
Discover the different types of Cucumber trees here.
A cucumber tree is a deciduous tree and one of the largest
tree species on the globe. It is found in eastern United States and southern Ontario.
The reason why it is called a cucumber tree is because it grows fruit that looks like an oddly shaped
. It is commonly planted in moist slopes, rich soiled woods, or along streams.
The bark of the cucumber tree is brown gray in color and it has long narrow furrows that disperse as they reach the top. The leaves of this tree are simple, and pointed at the tip. The leaves of the cucumber tree have an entire margin. Moreover, the twigs of this tree have a beautiful scent.
The wood of this tree is brittle, light, soft, coarse-grained, and light brown yellow in color. They are most commonly planted as ornamental trees, however not in the same way that magnolias are.
Though the tree shape is relatively the same, the cucumber tree grows its beautiful flowers (and subsequent fruit) high up in the canopy, where it is most difficult for us to see from the ground.
28. The Mountain Magnolia Tree (
Learn about Mountain Magnolia Trees here.
This deciduous evergreen tree is native to the southeastern United States. They grow specifically in the Appalachian Mountains regions. The also go by the names of Fraser magnolia, earless cucumber tree, and mountainoread tree.
The can be found growing in mountainous regions that have rich, moist, and well drained soils.
Mountain magnolias are a rather small tree, and will grow to be an average of 14 meters in height. They have very dark brown bark that has a rough scaly texture, that some have likened to being “warty”.
They have glossy green leaves, and are of course known for their large and showy white flowers.
Like all other magnolia species, the mountain magnolia isn’t used commercially for its wood. It’s mostly used as an ornamental tree, both for its beauty and for its attractive fragrance.
They are an important source of food for various bird, insect, and small mammal species, and bring beauty to any property that they are on.
29. The Purple Magnolia Tree (
Read more on Lily Magnolia Trees here.
This species of magnolia tree is native to the southeastern parts of China, specifically Sichuan and Yunnan. These trees prefer either acidic or neutral soils, and can tolerate both full sun conditions or partial shade.
Purple magnolias may also be called Mulan magnolias, red magnolias, lily magnolia, tulip magnolias, Jane magnolias, a woody orchid, or Japanese magnolias (though they are not native to Japan).
Purple magnolias are known as a small deciduous tree, usually only growing to be about 4 meters tall.
They have a pretty standard magnolia tree shape, with thin and spreading branches, though are characterized by their very striking and large
. Flowers will be either a purple, red, or deep pink color.
These trees are now ornamentally grown all over Europe, North America, and Japan. These trees have been cultivated for centuries in China and Japan as ornamental trees, for their obvious beauty, fragrance, and surprisingly easy care.
30. The Sweetbay Magnolia Tree (
Discover Sweetbay Magnolia Trees here.
The sweetbay magnolia tree is native to the Atlantic coastal plains of the United States. The will only grow near swamps and lowlands in these areas.
They are also referred to laurel magnolias, whitebay magnolias, swampbay magnolias, or simply swamp magnolias. This is indicative of their preference of growing location.
The sweetbay magnolia tree is interesting because it will be either deciduous (shedding leaves seasonally) or evergreen (keeping leaves all year long) depending on the surrounding climate. It will be evergreen in areas with mild winters, and deciduous in areas that receive colder winters.
These trees have simple and glossy green leaves, with smooth gray bark. They have particularly lovely lowers. Sweetbay magnolia flowers are very large and showy.
They are a creamy white color, and are paired with a shockingly sweet
scent. These trees are a very popular ornamental tree around the Atlantic coastal plains of America.
are tough. They are varying, resilient, and when they were once prevalent and a prospering species, the grew to large sizes and ordained many countrysides and city streets.
Unfortunately, an invasive pathogen invaded the elm species all of North America, and it has taken a huge toll on the elm species — this diseases is called Dutch Elm Disease. Some species of elm are more susceptible than others, and we are lucky to still have existing communities.
31. The American Elm Tree (
Discover the different types of American Elm trees here.
An American elm tree is a medium sized, deciduous tree that is commonly found in North America, specifically in Nova Scotia, Alberta, Montana, Florida and Texas. The American elm tree is considered as one of the most graceful, well known, and beautiful tree in New York.
This tree is the common tree for most bottomlands and it largely grows in many states of the United States.
The wood of this tree is tough, strong, hard, heavy, coarse grained, hard to work with and light brown in color. The wood is usually used for wheel hubs and crates, veneer, hoops and barrel staves. The symmetrical crown of the American elm tree gives it its ornamental quality.
Unfortunately, this tree became the victim of the
Dutch Elm disease
, which is why it was no longer seen on streets and at parks. Luckily, there have been serious measures that took place to revive this species.
The bark of this tree is dark gray in color and has odd furrows all over it. As it gets older, the outer bark begins to flake off revealing a white and brown surface. The leaves of the American elm tree are simple and they become dark green as they mature.
32. The English Elm Tree (
Ulmus Minor ‘Atinia’
Discover the English Elm Tree here.
An English elm tree (also known as a British elm tree) is a medium sized, fast growing, deciduous tree largely found in Europe. The fields of central southern Europe were full of English elm trees before the Dutch Elm disease took over.
The upper branches of this elm tree make the tree look like a fan shaped crown.
wood was once highly valued for the manufacturing of water pipes and hollowed trucks — thanks to its resistance to rot in saturated conditions. This wood has also been used as timber, for pier construction, and jetties as well.
The bark of this tree is usually scaly and nothing compared to the bark of the ancient Field elm. It is quite rough and dusty brown in color.
The leaves of the English elm tree start off as light green but as they mature, they become dark green. They sprout beautiful apetalous, purple flowers in the early spring, before the deciduous leaves come out.
33. The Slippery Elm Tree (
Discover the different types of Slippery Elm trees here.
A slippery elm tree is a medium sized, deciduous tree that is native to northern America and largely found in North Dakota, Maine, Quebec, Florida, and Texas. It is the kind of tree that flourishes in low fertile slopes and on stream banks.
Slippery elm tree is strong, hard, heavy, fairy durable when it touches soil, and coarse grained. The wood of this tree is not commonly used commercially, but when it is used, it is used to make barrel staves, fence posts, hoops, and ties.
Slippery elm bark has been used traditionally for medicinal purposes, firstly by First Nations communities, and then the knowledge of its remedying became more widespread, and is still used today as a soothing salve.
The bark of this tree is brown gray in color and tends to differ from the bark of an American elm tree. The inner bark of this tree has a white slimy, glue like substance on it which is why it is called “slippery” elm.
The leaves of this tree are –somewhat- big, they have teeth on the margins, and tend to change color as they get older (go from light green to dark green).
34. The Hawthorn Tree (
Discover the different types of Hawthorn trees here.
The hawthorn tree is a genus of tree that contains several hundred species. This tree species is commonly found in North America, Asia, and Europe. Since there are many subcategories in this tree species, the distinguishing factor is commonly the fruits and flowers that grow on the tree.
Many of the hawthorn species are very similar to one another, and can be rather difficult to distinguish. It would take a keen eye to be able to tell them apart. They are a very popular ornamental tree, and adorn many English countrysides.
The hawthorn tree also carries a decent amount of folkloric tales, and some spiritual significance. It is a symbol of fertility to some cultures, and a way to ward off evil spirits to others.
They produce beautiful flowers with an intense smell, and small, delicious, and deep colored fruits that are enjoyed by humans and animals alike.
35. The Black Locust Tree (
Learn more about Black Locust Trees here.
The black locust tree is sometimes referred to as a “false acacia” (hence the inclusion of “pseudo” in its scientific name) because they are very difficult to distinguish from one another.
This deciduous tree is part of the
family, and the subfamily of
, which both peas and beans are also part of!
The black locust in native to North America, but is also considered as an invasive species because it’s just too good at populating areas where there is no shade competition. They are capable of turning grasslands into a forest ecosystem.
They have been cultivated to many other continents, and countries, including Asia, Europe, Africa, south America, Pakistan India, Canada, and New Zealand. They appreciate all kinds of soils, but grow the best in areas that aren’t too moist and get a ton of sunlight.
Black locust wood in the toughest hardwood that can be found in North America, and is considered to be very valuable for this reason. They’re an excellent tree to plant to help with soil erosion, and the wood is used for furniture, flooring, fence posts, and small boats.
They have very straight trunks with a narrow crown, beautifully colored leaves, and stunning flowers that bloom in the shape of a butterfly that are a valuable resource to nectar loving insects.
36. The Honey Locust Tree (
Read more on Honey locust Trees here.
The honey locust tree is a tree native to North America, and is so good at adapting to new environments that it is considered as being an aggressively invasive species. They grow very quickly, live for about 120 years, and can really wreak havoc within that time.
These deciduous trees develop very thorny spikes that prove to be monumentally annoying for livestock and other animals. They grow lovely smelling flowers and edible fruit, and have bark that is gray and furrowed.
The wood is durable and flexible and is very easy to work with, making it a valuable wood to use in the lumber industry. Bark and twigs are also used for medicinal purposes by certain First Nations cultures.
Read about the different types of Locust Trees here.
There are 18 species of hickory tree, though they vary in size and small characteristics, they are all rather large, fast growing, hardwood trees. Hickory trees are all deciduous, and their wood is valued for a number of different reasons.
Some have delicious and edible nuts, others are valued for their quality of wood for
, but they are all tall with impressive canopies.
37. The Bitternut Hickory Tree (
Discover all about Butternut Hickory Trees here.
A bitternut hickory is a large sized, deciduous tree that largely grows around North America. This tree prefers growing on wet lands such as pastures, fields, hillsides, ridge tops and along streams. The bitternut hickory tree does well in rich, moist soils.
The wood is strong, touch, heavy, hard, and dark brown in color. The wood of the bitternut hickory tree is often used for lumber, pulpwood, furniture pannelling, and not to mention that it is one of the most popular choices of wood for meat smokers — this is because of its attractive smoke smell.
The bark of this tree is light gray in color and has shallow furrows on it. The leaves range in size but they all have sharp points at the tip, and are a delicate yellow-green color. They drop a huge amount of debris in late autumn, making them kind of a nuisance for landscapers.
Unlike their relatives, the pecan hickory, their nuts are too bitter to be edible, but the wood is sometimes mixed in with the wood of true hickories when being sold. They are the shortest lived of all the hickory trees, but 200 years isn’t something to laugh at!
38. The Pignut Hickory Tree (
Read more on Pignut Hickory Trees here.
tree is a medium sized, deciduous tree that is commonly found in Canada and Eastern United States. It is an upland species that grows well on hillsides and dry ridges, but grows most prosperously in more humid climates. It can be found in almost every state in America.
Pignut hickory wood
isn’t used commercially all that often, because internal discoloration of the wood occurs due to it being favored by various beetles and birds. Many forest dwelling species rely on pignut foliage and seeds as the main part of their diet.
Pignut hickory bark is coarsely textured with short branches and an irregular crown. Its leaves are compound (composed of leaflets) that drop in the fall, but before that they turn a stunning golden yellow.
39. The Shagbark Hickory Tree (
Discover the characteristics of the Shagbark Hickory Tree here.
A shagbark hickory tree is a large, long lived, deciduous tree found in southeast Canada and north east United States. It is one of the oldest living hickory trees, and tends to grow very tall — 350 years old and up to 40 meters tall.
The wood of this tree is tough, elastic, heavy, and coarse-grained. Because the tree is slow growing, it isn’t very popular in the
, but it is sometimes used to manufacture certain types of tool handles.
Its most important uses come from forest animals, who heavily rely on its foliage and sweet nuts as a part of their diet.
The bark of this tree is light gray, and smooth. As the tree begins to age, the bark of the tree starts to peel off. The peeling process is unique as it peels off in long strips that are attached in the middle but loose on the ends. This is what gave it its name as “shagbark” hickory.
40. The American Hophornbeam Tree (
Learn about the American Hophornbeam Tree here.
An American hophornbeam tree is a small sized, deciduous tree that is found in eastern North America, Central America, and Mexico. This tree is very similar to the
and it is quite popularly found in the stony, dry soils on ridges and slopes.
This tree grows very slowly and it never grows larger than 10 inches in diameter. The wood of this tree is very strong, heavy and hard, which is why it is often called ironwood. The wood is used for levels, tools, handles, and it makes the best fuel wood.
The bark of this tree is very thin and flakey. It is light gray brown in color. The leaves of this tree are simple and they are serrated all around its edge.
41.The American Hornbeam Tree (
Read more on American Hornbeam Trees here.
An American hornbeam is a small-sized, bushy, deciduous tree that is native to North America. It is most commonly found in Minnesota, Florida, Maine, Texas, and Quebec. In addition, this tree is commonly planted on the edge of swamps and along watercourses.
The wood of this tree is hard, very heavy, strong, and coarse-grained with a very light cream color. The wood of the American hornbeam tree is commonly used for the making of many kinds of tool handles.
The bark of this tree possesses a dark gray blue color, it is thin and smooth. This tree is known for its attractive bark, making it a nice addition to a home garden even after it has dropped its leaves.
The leaves of the American hornbeam are simple and they have subtle serrate along the entire margin.
42. The Tamarack Tree (or American Larch)
Discover the characteristics of the Tamarack Tree here.
The tamarack is a small to medium sized,
deciduous and coniferous tree that is most commonly found in Canada. This Canadian native tree is also found in different areas around the United States such as Alaska, Minnesota, and West Virginia.
It can be both coniferous and deciduous because it possess needles and cones, but they still drop seasonally.
Often, the American larch is considered as the “forest tree of swamps.” It can easily be found in the mountainous locations including steep slopes, but it can also be found in cold swamps around North America. It is able to withstand incredibly cold temperatures, up to -85 F!
The wood of this tree is hard, strong, heavy, and light brown in color. Many of the uses of the tamarack tree come from First Nations customs. The bark is used medicinally, and the wood is used to create snowshoes.
The bark of this tree is smooth and light gray, but as it gets older, the texture of the bark gets rough and the color turns a brown red. The leaves of the tamarack tree change their appearance during the different seasons, but for majority of the time, they are pale green.
43. The European Larch Tree
Learn about the European Larch Tree here.
A European larch tree is a medium to large sized, mountainous, deciduous conifer tree that is found in Europe. This larch tree species can live up to a 1000 years! It is only found in cold, high elevated areas such as the Carpathian Mountains and the Alps.
However, recently, this tree is being spotted in
and parks as ornamental pieces. The wood of the European larch tree is heavy, durable, strong, but flexible. It is commonly used for yacht making and fence posts.
The bark of this tree is a dusty brown color and smooth, but as it gets older, the smooth bark peels off and reveals a reddish brown surface. The leaves of this tree are similar to the leaves of the American larch tree.
44. The Western Larch Tree (
Take a closer look at Western Larch Trees here.
The western larch tree is a species of larch that is native to the mountains of western North America. They are a very cold tolerant tree, and will commonly be found growing in well drained and dry rocky soils.
These are large deciduous conifers, sometimes gaining heights of over 35 meters. They have needle-like leaves that are a light green color. The main branches of the tree are upsweeping, and the side branches are down sweeping. This creates an interesting crown shape.
Bark peels away in narrow strips.
The western larch tree has been used in the past for yacht and boat building, as the tree is very tolerant of water damage and harsh conditions.
45. The Alpine Larch Tree (
Learn about Alpine Larch Trees here.
The alpine larch tree is both a deciduous tree and a conifer. This means that it has needles and cones instead of leaves and flowers, but those needles do shed seasonally. Alpine larches are native to northwestern North America.
Specifically in the rocky mountains of Idaho, Montana, British Columbia, and Alberta. They also go by the common name of subalpine larch.
These trees will only grow at high altitudes, usually between 1800 and 2400 meters above sea level. They prefer to grow in areas with low temperatures and thin rocky soil. These conditions usually occur right at the tree line.
Alpine larches will grow to be around 25 meters tall with a very straight trunk, horizontal branches, and a sparsely arranged conical crown. They have long needle-like leaves that are a blue-green color when they first emerge, and they turn a golden yellow in the fall.
Alpine larch trees are actually the oldest tree species that can be found in Canada. The oldest alpine larch is said to be over 2000 years old!
Maple trees are considered as one of the most important forest tree group in North America. The most popular type of maple tree would be the sugar maple tree, as this is the one that produces the sap that creates
, while also having
, beautiful aesthetic qualities, food for the wildlife, and watershed protection.
There are many trees in this species that are popular all
around the globe
. Different areas of the world have different maple trees.
The most distinguishable factor of maple trees would be the arrangement of its leaves, twigs, and buds — and probably the most recognizable being a maple leaf. The fruit grown on this tree is quite distinctive as well. The bark of each maple tree depends on what type of maple tree it is.
are all famous maple trees, below we have discussed (in detail) some of the world’s most popular maple trees.
46. The Red Maple Tree
Take a closer look at Red Maple Trees here.
A red maple tree is a medium to large sized, fast growing, deciduous tree that is commonly found in North America. This tree is the most widespread and most common tree found in east and central North America.
The reason why it is called red maple is that during the fall time, the leaves of this tree turn a beautiful bright red color, and its twigs, buds, and flowers are all red as well.
The red maple tree can be found in swamps, in woodlots, and on moist slopes. The wood of this tree is somewhat strong, coarse-grained, and inexpensive. The red maple tree wood is commonly used for cheap furniture, fuel wood, railroad ties, crates, and baskets.
The bark of this tree is light grey when it is young and quite smooth. However, as it gets older, it gets darker and rough. The leaves are simple with 5 lobes, with the top 3 being larger than the bottom 2.
They are most similar to the leaf of the sugar maple, whereas as other maples have leaves that are more narrow with sharper points.
47. The Silver Maple Tree
Learn more on Silver Maple Trees here.
A silver maple tree is a medium sized, fast growing, deciduous tree that is commonly found in the United States and Canada. Even though this tree is commonly spread all over North America, it is not as common as the red maple tree.
The silver maple tree flourishes when it is planted in similar locations as the red maple tree and its wood is very similar to the red maple tree as well.
Lumbermen have given its wood the terminology “soft maple”, because of its soft quality. Since it is a fast growing tree, it is commonly planted for shade purposes. However, it has weak wood which is why it should not be planted near cars, homes, and other buildings.
The bark of this tree is reddish gray and smooth. As it matures, it starts to become a reddish brown color and starts getting flakey. The leaves are quite similar to the red maple tree leaves, but they possess a green and silvery white color, which is why it is called the silver maple.
48. The Sugar Maple Tree (
Read more about Sugar Maple Trees here.
A sugar maple tree is a medium sized, deciduous tree that is native to Canada, but is prevalent all over North America. Whereas most maples are renowned for their beautiful foliage, the sugar maple is most known for its sap.
This sugary sap is what creates
which is distributed all over the planet.
The wood is strong, coarse-grained, hard, and tough, with a fine surface. It is most commonly used for interior design, shoe lasts, furniture, veneer, flooring, fuel wood (of the highest quality) and rollers. Sugar maple has the quality of wood in the maple family.
The bark of a young sugar maple tree is dark gray, firm, and smooth, but as it gets older it starts becoming furrowed.
The leaves are similar to the other maple tree leaves but, the sugar maple tree leaves are dark green in color. In the fall, the leaves can possess a variety of colors at the same time, from purple, to yellow, to green, to brown, to orange, to red.
There are almost 300 known oak tree species in the world and 55 of them are native to North America of which most are in the eastern part of the United States. Oak trees are the most common trees in the forests of New York.
Oak trees are known to grow in different conditions, and each different species has its own variation, form, and distinguishing factors. While some oak trees flourish in mountainous areas and forests, others prefer growing in sheltered valleys.
In order to gain a better understanding of oak tree types, it is better to divide them in two groups: the white oaks and the black oaks.
The leaves of the
are rounded and the acorns that grow on it are sweet. The acorns of this category take a year to mature which is why they are referred to as annual oaks.
The leaves of the
have bristles on their tips instead of being round and the acorns are bitter as well. The acorns of this category mature two times in one year which is why they are referred to as biennial oaks.
The immature acorns are what help distinguishing black oaks from white oaks.
Read about the
different types of oak wood here
49. The Black Oak Tree (
Learn all about Black Oak Trees here.
A black oak tree is a small sized, fast growing, deciduous tree that is commonly found in central and eastern North America.
This tree is a dominant tree commonly found in different parts of North America, but it is not as valuable as the red oak tree (mentioned below). This tree is usually grown on gravelly soils and dry grounds.
The wood of the black oak tree is strong, hard, and heavy, but not as valuable as the red oak tree. The wood is used for fuel wood, ties, and construction.
The bark of the black oak tree is dark brown, and smooth. As it gets older, it started becoming gray black and extremely rough.
Sometimes, the bark starts to peel off and it reveals a yellow orange inner bark that is often used to yield yellow dye. The leaves of this tree are simple and they have bristles on their tips.
There are two other types of black oak trees as well. One of them is the
, Australian tree species and
, the Californian tree species, from the western United States.
50. The Chestnut Oak Tree
Read about the characteristics of the Chestnut Oak Tree here.
A chestnut oak tree is a medium sized, deciduous tree that is commonly found in eastern United States. his oak tree species is found on rocky ridges, hillsides, and dry lands.
The wood of the chestnut oak tree is like the wood of a white oak tree (mentioned below) but is less valuable. The wood of this tree is used for posts, rough construction, and ties. The
obtained from it is quite hard for any interior finishes.
The bark of this tree is yellow brown and smooth when it is young. When it gets older, it starts becoming dark brown and black with rough ridges and deep furrows. The leaves of this tree are commonly yellow green and simple.
51. The Northern Red Oak
Discover the Northern Red Oak Tree here.
A northern red oak tree is a medium to large sized, fast growing, deciduous tree commonly found in North America. This tree has shown signs of adaptability in different soils and conditions. The name is indicative of its qualities, as the heartwood, twigs, flowers, and leaves are all red.
The wood of the northern red oak tree is light, strong, hard, heavy, and light brown red in color. It is commonly used for interior finishes, piling, ships, general construction, and furniture. However, is not as durable as the wood of a white oak tree.
The bark of this tree is smooth and gray green when it is young. As it gets older, the bark starts breaking in an irregular way and reveals shallow furrows. The inner bark color is red. The leaves of the northern red oak are simple and have bristle tips.
52. The Scarlet Oak Tree
Learn all about the Scarlet Oak Tree here.
A scarlet oak tree is a medium to large sized, deciduous tree native to eastern and central United States. The scarlet oak tree is a tree that has vibrant foliage in the winter — leaves stay attached to the tree well into the winter, creating a stark and stunning contrast on snow landscapes.
The wood of this tree is coarse, heavy, and strong. It is commonly used for inferior constructions, but it is not used for ties, fuel, and props. The scarlet oak tree adds a beautiful aesthetic because of its unique colored leaves; it is often used as an ornamental piece by many homeowners.
The bark of this tree is smooth and light brown. As it gets older, it starts getting edges and furrows in it. The color of the bark turns black. The inner bark has a beautiful red color. The leaves of the scarlet oak tree are simple and toothed.
53. The White Oak Tree (
Read all about the White Oak Tree here.
A white oak tree is a medium to large sized, long lived, deciduous conifer tree that is commonly found in central and eastern North America.
The reason why it is called a white oak tree is because it is not common to find any tree species that has a white bark, light gray is common, but having a white trunk is exotic.
A white oak tree produces the highest quality of oak
. The wood of this tree is strong, heavy, durable, and hard. It is most commonly used for implements, flooring, ties, furniture and general construction where the sturdiness of the wood is required.
Moreover, the acorns that grow on the white oak tree are quite important for wildlife.
The bark of the white oak tree is white and sometimes ashy gray in color. It has furrows and scales, but as it gets older, the furrows get deeper. The leaves of this tree have round lobes and shallow notches.
54. The Eastern White Pine Tree
Discover the Eastern White Pine Tree here.
An eastern white pine tree is a medium sized, deciduous conifer tree that is most commonly found in North America and in the United Kingdom.
This tree was once the most important species in the lumber industry, before it was over-logged. Old growth eastern white pines could sometimes reach heights of 70 meters.
The wood of the eastern white pine tree is even textured, soft, light brown, and can be easily worked with.
it provides is used for a variety of things such as doors, buckets, boxes, interior trims, and sashes. There is no other tree that has such versatile wood, and it is the most valuable type of wood on the market.
The bark of this tree is green, smooth and quite thin. However, as it gets older, it becomes brown and grey with deep furrows. The foliage of the eastern white pine are blue-green needles, usually 5 inches long and grow in close clusters.
55. The Sassafras Tree
Discover all about the Sassafras Tree here.
A sassafras tree is a small size to medium sized, shade intolerant, deciduous tree that is commonly found in eastern North America and eastern Asia.
This tree is popularly known for its roots and bark as they are commonly used to make
and they have been being used traditionally for hundreds of years.
This tree species is commonly found in sandy soils, between mountains or on hillsides. The wood of this tree is aromatic, brittle, weak, soft, and extremely durable when it comes in contact with soil. The wood of the sassafras tree is commonly used to make fence posts.
The bark of this tree is brown red in color and it has deep furrows on it when it is young. As it gets older, the bark starts cracking and it reveals a beautiful vibrant cinnamon red color.
Every sassafras tree has its own type of leaves. While some have 3 lobes, there are a few that may have 5; however, this is quite rare.
56. The Serviceberry Tree (
Read all about the Serviceberry Tree here.
A serviceberry tree is a small sized, deciduous tree or shrub that is commonly found in the Northern Hemisphere. There are a few species of this tree that is native to Canada and the United States while some species are only found in Asia and Europe.
The serviceberry tree blossoms beautiful flowers during the spring time which are small and white. A serviceberry tree is commonly found along river banks, streams, along fences, and on hills. Sometimes they are also found on highlands.
The wood of this tree is harder than a white oak’s wood; it is strong, heavy, coarse-grained, and dark brown with red highlights. The wood is very rarely used for tool handles. Although this tree has an attractive appeal to it, it does not have any value for timber.
The bark of this tree is brown gray in color and quite smooth, but as it gets older, dark streaks begin appearing. The leaves of this tree are simple with sharp pointed tips.
57. The Black Walnut Tree
Discover all about the Black Walnut Tree here.
A black walnut tree is a medium to large sized, deciduous tree that is commonly found in North America, Africa, and some places in Europe.
This tree is extremely popular because it has high quality wood and edible, big nuts that are commercially harvested. The best conditions for a black walnut tree to grow would be well drained, rich soiled
The wood of this tree is strong, hard, heavy, durable, east to work with, can be polished with finesse, and it possesses a rich brown color.
The wood of the black walnut tree is most commonly used for interior works, cabinet making, gunstocks, and high end furniture. It is important to protect black walnut trees and they must be planted in locations where they can flourish.
The bark of the black walnut tree is dark, thick, furrowed and brown gray in color.
As it gets older, it begins to shred off and it reveals a beautiful dark chocolate brown color inner bark. The leaves of this tree are usually alternately arranged and compound that are dark green in color with serrated margins.
58. The Black Willow Tree
Discover all about the Black Willow Tree here.
is a medium sized, deciduous tree that is commonly found in North America and Europe. Out of all the willow tree species, the black willow tree is the biggest and most widely spread species.
A black willow tree requires wet or moist soil along lakes and streams to grow to its fullest potential, but it can also be grown on sandy, fresh and gravely soils where it can soak up a good amount of sunlight.
The black willow tree does not have much importance in terms of its timber production but it can be used for other things. The wood of this tree is soft, weak, and crooked.
It is most commonly used for pulp, boxes, excelsior, and it was actually the first wood that was used to create artificial limbs!
The bark of a black willow tree is rough, thick and it has scales all over it. When the tree is young, the color of the bark is light brown, but as it gets older, the bark becomes a darker shade of brown.
The leaves of this tree are simple leaf blades that are dark green in color, with a lightly serrated margin.
Discover the different types of Willow trees here.
59. The Flowering Dogwood Tree (
Discover the Flowering Dogwood Trees here.
A dogwood tree
is a small sized, ornamental, deciduous tree that is commonly found in eastern North America and northern Mexico. A dogwood tree does well when it is getting exposed to lots of water and it is soaking up a good amount of sunshine.
The flowering dogwood tree is commonly known for the light yellow and
that begin to blossom on it during the spring time. Since these flowers have a beautiful appearance, these trees are most well known for ornamental appeal.
The wood of this tree is gray brown in color, coarse grained, dense, and hard. The wood of the dogwood tree has been used for mallets, tool handles, butchers block, golf club heads, wooden rake teeth, and jewelry boxes.
The bark was traditionally used as a holistic medicine to help treat mange in dogs. This purpose is where the name “dogwood” came from.
The bark of this tree has an interesting appearance. It is quite scaly and possesses an ash-brown color.
The leaves of this tree simple and oval shaped. One distinguishing factor about this tree is that during the fall time, the leaves turn into a beautiful brown red color, making it beautiful all year round!
Discover the different types of Dogwood trees here.
Types of Evergreen Trees
60. The Australian Mountain Ash Tree (
Discover the Australian Mountain Ash Tree here.
Eucalyptus is a genus that contains more than 700 species of
, flowering plants, and trees. Even though they have different genus names; eucalyptus is often referred to as eucalypt in European nations.
The plants that belong to this genus have smooth, hard, stringy or fibrous bark, leaves that have oil glands and they have petals and
. The fruit that grows on this species is referred to as a gumnut because it is shaped like a woody capsule.
Eucalyptus trees are native to Australia and because
are common in the Australian region, these trees can survive the fire. Moreover, if the tree gets damaged because of these fires, it can re-sprout.
There are a few species of eucalyptus plants that can be found outside of Australia. The tree species that are grown in other countries are known to be fast growing and they have valuable timber which is used for honey, essential oils, and pulpwood.
The mountain ash eucalyptus is the tallest of the eucalyptus family, with old growth groves growing to be over 100 meters tall! That makes them the tallest living thing in on the planet. They can grow to be upwards of 500 years old, and are an important habitat and source of food for many animal species.
Discover the different types of Eucalyptus trees here.
61. The River Red Gum Tree (
Learn about the River Red Gum Tree here.
The river red gum is an evergreen tree species that is part of the eucalyptus family. These trees are endemic to Australia, meaning that they will only occur there, and no where else.
River red gum trees are extremely tolerant of drought and soil salinity, though they tend to perform best if flood-prone areas, and will commonly be found growing in watercourses.
These trees have smooth white bark that sheds off in large plate-like strips. They have lance shaped green leaves and striking white flowers. These trees provide valuable habitats for bats, pythons, and birds.
River red gum trees are used as a restoration tree species in drought areas. The wood is also known for its brilliant red color, and is a very coveted type of wood for craft furniture makers.
62. The Flowering Gum Tree (
Take a closer look at the Red Flowering Gum Tree here.
The flowering gum tree is one of the most widely cultivated eucalyptus trees in Australia. They will only grow in very temperate climates with low humidity in the summer time, and not too much rainfall either. This makes Australia the perfect habitat!
These trees are medium sized evergreens, growing only to heights of about 15 meters. They have very rough and darkly colored bark, with huge recognizable dark, glossy green gum leaves. They are known for having super showy and lovely flowers, ranging from orange, to red, to pink.
Gum trees are very popular ornamental trees in Australia, and they are also a very important source of nectar for birds and insects. Because of the dry and harsh conditions of its growing region, not many other flowering plants can prosper as well as the flowering gum tree.
63. The Water Gum Tree (
Read all about the Water Gum Tree here.
The water gum tree is a brilliant evergreen tree that also grows in Australia. They will only grow in very temperate climates with low summertime humidity, and not too much rainfall.
They are most recognized by their beautiful evergreen leaves. They first emerge as a unique bronze orange color, before they turn a deep, glossy green. This tree will reach heights of about 8 meters, and have a broad columnar shaped crown. Trunks are covered with a creamy gray bark.
They are often planted as a shade tree or a screen plant to help protect more vulnerable and less sun-hardy plants in gardens and parks.
64. The Balsam Fir Tree (
Discover the Balsam Fir Tree here.
A balsam fir is an evergreen, medium size forest tree that is native to northeastern United States and eastern and central Canada. The balsam fir tree is commonly found in cold climates, growing around wet swamps, flatlands, and mountain ranges.
The wood of this tree is soft, coarse grained, light, not durable, and light brown in color. The balsam fir tree wood is not used for lumber. It became a popular tree type to have because many people use it as a
The needles of the tree are very fragrant and stay on much longer than other types of pine trees.
The bark of this tree is gray and brown in color. It is covered in small patches of balsam blisters that have an oily resin them (that is often used for medicinal purposes!).
Discover the different types of Fir trees here.
65. The Fraser Fir Tree (
Learn all about Fraser Fir Trees here.
The Fraser fir tree is a member of the fir family. It is an evergreen coniferous tree, and is native specifically to the Appalachian mountains of the southeastern United States. They are very drought resilient trees, and can grow in a great variety of soil types. They are very tolerant to cold.
These trees are rather small, only growing 10-15 meters in height, with a iconically conic crown. Fraser fir trees have straight branches and smooth gray/brown bark. They have needle-like leaves that are dark green in color and them smell very pleasant.
The Fraser fir tree is best known as being an optimal
. This tree has actually been used more times than any other tree species as the White House Christmas tree.
North Carolina has the largest amount of commercial Christmas tree groves, though there are notable groves in Scotland, Ireland, and Canada as well.
66. The Douglas Fir Tree (
Read more on Douglas Fir Trees here.
The Douglas fir is a tree that is actually part of the pine family, and it is native to the Pacific Northwest of North America. They can grow in a great many varieties of
and different climatic areas.
Douglas firs are medium to extremely large trees, and will grow to be anywhere from 20 to 100 meters depending on their growing region. They have long branches, and soft bright green needles. Needles grow directly from the twig instead of in clusters, making them easier to recognize.
Douglas firs are wonderful trees to look at, and they are one of the best known and most used types of wood available. They are used for framing, construction, and flooring. They’ve also been a very popular choice of Christmas tree throughout the years.
67. The Eastern Hemlock Tree (
Discover the Eastern Hemlock Trees here.
is a large, long lived, shade loving (which is unusual for evergreens), coniferous tree that is native to North America.
This tree is considered as a valuable forest tree and is commonly found on the eastern side of North America. It is commonly grown in shaded areas, steep mountain slopes, or at the border of swamps.
The bark of this tree is gray red in color and it contains a high content of
, the leaves of this tree are borne singly and they have a beautiful dark green color.
The wood of this tree is not strong, brittle, light, coarse grained, not durable, and light brown in color. The wood is most commonly used as construction lumber and it always stays in demand for pulp. Inner bark is edible and medicinal, and the needles can be made into tea!
Discover the different types of Hemlock trees here.
68. The Mountain Hemlock Tree (
Learn about Mountain Hemlock Trees here.
The mountain hemlock tree is native to the west coast of North America, and will grow in high altitudes from Alaska, southward to California.
They are commonly found in inland rocky locations, with cold and snowy subalpine conditions. There are some trees that can live to be over 800 years old.
Mountain hemlocks are medium to large evergreen conifers, and will commonly grow to be 20-40 meters tall, though some exceptional trees have been known to exceed 59 meters.
They have a slender, conic crown and are known best by their pendulous branchlet tips. They have blue/green needle-like leaves.
Mountain hemlock trees mostly grow in the wild. They don’t have many uses for humans other than to be admired on hikes, and they are sometimes grown ornamentally in parks and gardens.
They make for a great landscaping tree in areas that experience severely cold winter weather.
69. The Western Hemlock Tree (
Take a closer look at Western Hemlock Trees here.
The western hemlock tree, or the western hemlock-spruce, is native to the west coast of North America. This evergreen conifer grows from Alaska down to California.
Unlike the mountain hemlock tree, the western hemlock will only grow at low altitudes or at sea level. It prefers temperate rainforest like conditions.
The western hemlock has a neat conic shape with dark green needle-like leaves. These trees have brown, thin and furrowed bark. The tree is most easily recognized by its drooping shoots. The tree is an integral component of the Pacific Northwest coastal range of forests.
Western hemlocks are mostly used as a garden tree or ornamental tree, though they are sometimes used in forestry to help with
, thanks to their dense and sturdy roots. Western hemlock wood is sometimes used to make furniture as well.
70. The Bristlecone Hemlock Tree (
The bristlecone hemlock tree is a very rare tree. This coniferous evergreen tree is endemic to southeastern China, and only contains the one single species. They are highly endangered, and only a few can be found at low to medium mountain elevations
These evergreen trees can grow to be over 30 meters tall. They are usually multi stemmed with a conical/drooping crown that will sometimes have a flat top. They have flat needles that are glossy green, and are arranged spirally on a twig.
These trees were once heavily logged, to the point of supposed extinction. Until quite recently, they were thought to have been completely extinct.
Luckily they are now on the critically endangered list and are now protected. Chances are, the majority of us will never see a bristlecone hemlock tree in our whole lives!
71. The Pitch Pine Tree
Read more about the Pitch Pine Tree here.
A pitch pine tree is small to medium sized, coniferous tree that is commonly found in eastern North America. Pitch pines can growing on sites and in conditions that are entirely unsuitable for other types of trees and plants.
The wood of this tree is coarse grained, hard, and reddish brown in color. Although, the tree rarely ever reaches a big size, when it does, the wood is used for lumber. It is used for ties, mine props, rough framing lumber, and crates.
The bark of this tree is reddish brown in color and it is quite rough even at a young age. However, as it gets older, it becomes a deeper red brown color and gets deep furrows all over.
Because the bark of the pitch pine three is very thick, it is a
fire resistant tree
. The leaves of the pitch pine tree are needles that are very stiff, and are green yellow in color.
72. The Red Pine Tree
Learn all about the Red Pine Tree.
A red pine tree is a medium to large sized, rapid growing, coniferous evergreen tree that is commonly found in the United States, United Kingdom and some parts of Europe. They grow in sandy soils and in low nutrient soils, much like other species of pine trees.
The wood of this tree is light, coarse-grained, somewhat smooth in texture, light red in color, and often mixed with white pine lumber.
Since this tree species grows quite fast, it is prone to diseases and
, which is why it is commonly planted in lands that are away from cities and suburban areas.
The bark of the red pine tree is brown red in color and it has thin ridges all over it. Similar to the pitch pine tree, this tree has needle like leaves as well, but they possess a rich, deep green color. Needles will live on the tree between 3 and 6 years.
73. The Scotch Pine Tree (
Learn all about Scotch Pine Trees here.
Referred to as the scotch pine in the United States, and a scots pine in the United Kingdom, this tree is a medium to large sized, coniferous evergreen tree commonly found in Europe and Asia.
This tree is commonly planted in sandy and poorer quality soils, peat bogs, and rocky outcrops or near the forest limit.
Similar to the other pine trees, the scots pine has wood that is coarse-grained, thick, and brown in color. The wood is often used for ties, pulpwood, and framing lumber.
On the other hand, the scots pine tree was also a popular choice of
in the 80’s and 90’s before fir trees became the prominent choice.
The bark of this tree is scaly, thick, and brown gray in color. However, the upper part of the trunk is flaky, thin, and orange in color. The leaves are needle-like, possessing a blue/green color. They grow in fascicles of 2 on older trees, but in fascicles of 5-6 on vigorous young trees.
74. The Ponderosa Pine Tree (
Read more on Ponderosa Pine Trees here.
The ponderosa pine is a coniferous evergreen tree that is native to some of the driest sites known in North America. They occur all over British Columbia, Washington, California, Arizona, New Mexico, and they are the most common tree found in Colorado.
Ponderosa pines are very large tree, with common heights occurring between 35 and 50 meters. The tallest one known is 81.77 meters tall! They’re also very long lived, with the oldest one being 933 years old.
These pine trees have long, flexible, blue green needles that grow in clusters of 3. Their bark grows in large plates that are dark orange brown, with crevices that are black.
Ponderosa pines are very important in the tree planting and logging industry, and they are a very popular choice of wood for close fitting jobs.
75. The Bristlecone Pine Tree (
Discover the Bristlecone Pine Tree here
The bristle cone pine is a very well known tree, as it is the oldest living specimen known on the entire planet. Bristle cone pine trees have a life expectancy of over 3000 years, which absolutely blows the redwood trees’ life expectancy completely out of the water.
The reason why the bristlecone pine may be lesser known than the redwood, is because these trees live in extremely harsh conditions, which greatly affects their overall size.
In fast, the bristlecone pine can thrive where no other plant even exists. They are the very last tree species found at the altitude tree line.
Bristlecone pines are coniferous evergreen trees with short green needles that can stay alive on a tree for over 40 years! They rarely exceed 20 meters in height, and trees that grow at high altitudes may even be about half that height.
These trees are so rare, so long lived, and so peculiar looking, that they really are not used in the same way that other trees are used. The bristlecone pine is meant to be admired, protected, and very gently handled.
If it weren’t for these trees, dendroclimatologists (determining ancient climate patterns through observation of ancient tree rings) wouldn’t know nearly as much as they do today.
76. The Wollemi Pine Tree (
Read about the Wollemi Pine Tree here.
The wollemi pine tree is part of the
family, and is endemic to Australia, though they have been cultivated elsewhere. They are currently on the critically endangered list.
They are very versatile and resilient trees, and they can survive in any kind of soil. They prefer full sun to partial shade, and can tolerate relatively low temperatures for a member of the
Wollemi pines can achieve heights of 40 meters, and they are covered in a chocolate brown colored bark that is covered in strange bubbles.
These trees have a rather unusual branch formation, they are multistemmed and grow in eratic directions. They grow flat leaves that are bright lime in color, and are arranged spirally on a stem.
Because these trees are critically endangered, they are not used in any way but to be admired. They are very popular in botanical gardens, and make for very attractive garden and ornamental trees because of their easy care.
They’ve even been promoted as
, but that was before their population was threatened.
77. The Eastern Juniper Tree (
Learn all about the Eastern Juniper Trees here.
The eastern juniper tree is a slow growing, coniferous evergreen tree that is native to North America. This tree is known for being incredibly resilient and hardy. It can withstand drought, heat, flooding, and cold. They can grow in nearly any soil type.
The wood of this tree is fragrant, soft, brittle, light, very durable, and it is completely resistant to rot. The eastern juniper tree’s wood is red in color but it has white sapwood highlights on it. The wood is often used for cedar chests, pencils, interior decorating, and cabinetry.
The bark of this tree is light brown red in color and the leaves of this tree vary from being red brown to dark green. They overlap each other and they have quite a unique look. The most familiar part of this tree are its attractive, small, blue berry like fruits.
Discover the different types of Cedar trees here.
78. The Western Juniper (
Discover the characteristics of the Western Juniper Trees here.
The western juniper tree is a small tree or shrub that is native to the western side of the United States. The evergreen conifer can usually be found growing at altitudes between 800 and 3000 meters in elevation.
They prefer to grow on dry, rocky sites, that are out of the range of competition between ponderosa pines and Douglas fir trees.
These small trees grow to be less than 10 meters tall, with a very robust and wide conical crown. They have slightly ascending branches that are covered in deep green needle-like leaves. Cones are very small and berry like, very characteristic of juniper trees.
The western juniper tree is an important source of food for the birds and small mammals that are present in the same region. They are not used by humans other than being admired on hikes!
79. The Red Spruce Tree
Read all about Red Spruce Trees here.
A red spruce tree is a small to medium sized tree that is native to many regions in North America. They are very shade tolerant and slow growing. Both perennial and coniferous, they are an extremely cold hardy tree.
The wood of the red spruce tree is soft, light, and coarse-grained. It is the kind of wood that is in demand for
chemical wood pulp
. It has a certain sound managing quality that makes it an optimal choice for musical instruments.
These trees are also a popular choice for Christmas trees as well.
The bark of this tree is very thin and it peels off quite easily. The leaves are needle like, yellow green in color, somewhat flexible, and can stay on the tree for 5-6 years.
80. The White Spruce Tree
Learn about White Spruce Trees here.
A white spruce tree is a large sized, coniferous evergreen tree that is commonly found in the
of North America. These large trees can be found on mountain slopes as well on flat grounds.
Just like the red spruce tree wood, white spruce wood is used for wood pulp and construction. The attractive foliage of this tree is what makes it the perfect ornamental tree, which is why it is used as a Christmas tree.
The bark of the white spruce tree is light brown red in color and it separates in slim scales. The leaves of this tree are needle like, shiny, green and they have a strong smell.
81. The Black Spruce Tree (
Learn more on Black Spruce Trees here.
Black spruce trees are native to North America, but mainly in Canada and the most northeastern parts of the United States.
They are sometimes referred to as a “bog spruce” or “swamp spruce” because it is very common to find them growing near bogs and swamps! However, they do also grow in mountainous regions.
Black spruce trees are one of the smaller spruce species. They have the darkest bark, the smallest cones, and the shortest needles as well. Needles are less than an inch long, a dark green color, and are very stiff.
These trees are known for their contribution to the pulpwood industry, though are not important commercially because of their very small size. They contribute to forest ecology, and are known for their resilience to low nutrient soil, and harsh conditions.
82. The Coast Redwood Tree (
Read more on Coast redwood Trees here.
This is a moment I know we’ve all been waiting for. The redwood tree is one of the most well known trees on the planet. Many only know it for its sheer size and impressive life expectancy, but there is so much more to the redwood tree than that!
This tree can grow to be 115 meters tall, and they have an average life expectancy of 1200-1800 years. The oldest redwood tree is said to be 2200 years old! They are best known for their old growth groves that occur in northern California and southwestern Oregon.
Redwoods have very thick, red bark that makes them incredibly resistant to fire damage. They have short coniferous needles and small cones that release pollen every winter.
83. The Giant Redwood Tree (S
Learn more on Giant Redwood Trees here.
Along with the coast redwood and the dawn redwood, the giant redwood is one of three species known as the redwoods in the
family, and subfamily
The giant redwood is endemic to only the Sierra Mountains of California. They require tons of moisture in order to succeed.
Giant redwoods can gain heights of 50-85 meters (on average) and can live over 2500 years old. The oldest known giant redwood tree is thought to be over 3200 years old.
They have massively thick trunks that are covered in very thick, fibrous, and furrowed red/brown bark. Leaves are awl shaped and arranged in spiral shoots.
Giant redwoods are a very rare species of tree, and all known ranges are protected. This is because they were over-logged in the 18th and 19th centuries to the point of near extinction. Now their only interaction with humans is by being gazed upon in protected sanctuaries.
84. The Dawn Redwood Tree (
Take a closer look at Dawn Redwood Trees here.
To begin, we will clarify that the dawn redwood tree is not an evergreen tree, but it is coniferous, meaning that it possesses needles and cones, but the needles do shed seasonally.
The reason we are including the dawn redwood, is because it is the third of the three surviving species of the sequoia family.
The dawn redwood is native to southeastern China, but it has been naturalized in the temperate regions of the United States and certain parts of Europe as well.
The dawn redwood is a very fast growing tree, and though the shortest of the sequoia trees, still grow to be an average of 37 meters in height. They have bright green needle-like leaves, and bark the is vertically fissured and peels off in long ribbons. Bark is a red/brown color.
This tree was thought to have been extinct until the mid 20th century, and is known as a “living fossil specie”. This means that the tree exists today quite similarly to when it did thousands of years ago.
These trees are less endangered than the other 2 species, and they are often used as ornamental trees.
85. The Tanoak Tree (
Read about Tanoak Trees here.
The tanoak tree is a native tree to very specific regions, and it occurs naturally mostly in northern California and southern Oregon. This large tree is usually found growing amidst redwood trees and Douglas fir trees.
Tanoaks are large trees usually reaching heights of 40 meters, though they have rather thin trunks. The bark is light gray/brown and thin, with large broadleaf leaves that have a waxy or leathery texture. Branches grow into a narrow and dense crown at the top of the trunk.
Though not particularly valuable in the lumber industry, tanoak trees are a very important source of food, and an important habitat to many birds, chipmunks, squirrels, raccoons, and many other mammals.
86. The Kauri Tree (
Learn all about the Kauri Tree here.
This coniferous evergreen tree is native and endemic to only New Zealand. They run a close second to the redwood tree in terms of overall massiveness and life expectancy. These trees grow in very humid regions, and are a very tough competitor for soil nutrients.
Kauri trees have been around since the Jurassic period, which was some 190 million years ago. This indicates that their genetic makeup is extremely robust, enabling them to survive many ages and climate changes.
They can grow to be upwards of 50 meters tall, with a trunk diameter that challenges the redwood at 9 meters around. Their bark is smooth gray and defoliates in thin sheets, creating enormous piles of debris.
These trees are protected and are not used commercially for any reason. They are present for us to admire, and nothing more.
87. The Monkey Puzzle Tree (
Take a closer look at the Monkey Puzzle Tree here.
The monkey puzzle tree may be one of the most unusual looking trees you’ll ever see. This tree is also known as the monkey tail tree or the Chilean pine, and it is native to the Andes mountain regions of Argentina and Chile.
These trees are coniferous evergreens with leaves that are very sharp and scale-like. They grow spirally along the branches and cover the entire length of the trunk as well. They have light gray bark that eventually starts to look like the foot of an elephant as a tree ages.
These large trees can grow to be over 50 meters tall, with trunk diameters averaging at 1 meter around. Though they are not used commercially, monkey puzzle trees are staple plants in botanical gardens throughout North America and Europe.
88. The Patagonian Cypress Tree (
Read all about the Patagonian Cypress Tree here.
The Patagonian cypress tree is a very long lived and very tall conifer that grows only in the mountains of southern Chile and southern Argentina. They grow in rainforest-like conditions and are sometimes called the sequoia of South America.
Some other names for this tree are alerce (which means larch in Spanish) and lahuan, which is the Patagonian aboriginal name for the tree. The largest known specimen is 60 meters tall, and the oldest known specimen is 3622 years old.
This tree has a pyramidal shape and decussate whorls of leaves. The scale like leaves are a deep green color and are the easiest way to identify this tree. They have thick red bark that peels off in strips.
Patagonian cypress trees are unfortunately an endangered tree species now, and that means they are not used for any reason other than to be admired.
89. The Nootka Cypress Tree (
Cupressus Nootkatensis/Chamaecyparis Nootkasensis
Take a closer look at Nootka Cypress Trees here.
The Nootka cypress tree is native to the west coast of North America. They exist in small pockets where soil is the most moist. This tree has many different names, including; Nootka cypress, yellow cypress, Alaska cypress, Nootka cedar, yellow cedar, Alaska cedar, and Alaska yellow cedar.
These trees are large, growing to be an average of 40 meters tall. They have characteristically pendulous branches and foliage that grows in very attractive flat sprays of dark green scales. They are also sometimes called weeping cypresses for these attractive sweeping branches.
Nootka cypress wood is considered as being one of the finest timbers in the world, because of its resistance to weather and insect damage, and because it is very durable and attractive looking. Nootka cypress wood has been traditionally used to make face masks, paddles, dishes, and bows.
90. The Atlantic White Cedar Tree (
Read more about Atlantic White Cedar trees here.
The Atlantic white
also goes by the names of Atlantic white cypress, southern white cedar, white-cedar, or false-cypress. This tree is a member of the cypress family, and native to the Atlantic coast of North America, indicated by its common name!
They grow within 100 miles of the coast, and at a maximum altitude of 50 meters above sea level. They prefer to grow in freshwater wetlands, and are considered as being an obligate wetland species.
Atlantic white cedars are medium sized evergreen conifers that grow to be around 20-28 meters tall. They grow feathery foliage that creates a flattened spray shape, and scales are a blue/green color.
The bark of the Atlantic white cedar tree is anywhere from being ash gray to red/brown, and it develops deep ridges with age.
Atlantic white cedar wood is commonly used for shingles, panelling, and interior finishing. However, this attractive conifer is mostly planted as an ornamental tree in areas that experience harsh winters and require cold hardy trees to decorate a property.
91. The Northern White Cedar Tree (
Discover the Northern White Cedar Trees here.
The northern white
goes by many names. It is also known as being an eastern white cedar, a swamp cedar, an American arborvitae, or an eastern arborvitae. The word arborvitae is latin for “tree of life”, which has been chosen for the medicinal properties of the trees foliage, sap, and bark.
These trees are part of the cypress family and they grow in the eastern part of Canada, and the northeastern
of the United States. They are called “swamp cedar” because they prefer to grow in areas that are exceptionally wet.
The northern white cedar tree is medium sized, only growing to be about 15 meters tall in good conditions, and they are covered in red/brown bark that defoliates in narrow strips. Foliage grows in a fan shape and is comprised of scale-like leaves.
These trees are best known for the medicinal properties, as their foliage is rich in vitamin C and has traditionally been a great source of nutrients for First Nations communities. Otherwise these trees are grown as ornamental plants in areas that experience harsh winters.
92. The Western Red Cedar Tree (
Learn more about Western Red Cedar Trees here.
The western red
is otherwise known as the Pacific red cedar, the giant arborvitae, the western arborvitae, or giant cedar. This evergreen conifer is part of the cypress family, and are therefore not a true cedar or part of the
It is native to western North America, and will grow most prosperously in lush forests, on mountainsides, and by swamps and streams.
These trees are very large and grow to heights ranging between 65-70 meters in height. They are characterized by their flat sprays of scale-like green leaves. They have very robust and conical crowns.
Western red cedars are mostly known as being ornamental trees in areas that experience harsh winters. Though their wood is valued because of its overall aroma, attractive appearance, and its resistance to decay from water or insect damage.
Western red cedar wood is commonly used to make shingles, siding, and framing. It has also traditionally been used for making sailboats and kayaks.
93. The Atlas Cedar Tree (
Read all about Atlas Cedar Trees here.
The atlas cedar tree is a member of genus
, and of the pine family (
). These coniferous evergreen trees are native to the Atlas mountains of Morocco. They will grow at elevations occurring between 1370 and 2200 meters above sea level. They grow in humid and temperate climates.
Atlas cedars are large trees and reach heights of 30-35 meters. They have crowns that contain splitting branches that are pendulous, creating a uniquely shaped crown. They grow needle-like leaves that are a blue green color.
Atlas cedars don’t occur in many places, though in those places they are a popular ornamental tree. They are also grown in the south of France for commercial timber.
94. The Southern Live Oak Tree (
Read about the characteristics of the Southern Live Oak Tree here.
The southern live oak tree may be one of the most majestic and ephemeral looking trees out there. They are sometimes called the Virginia live oak, the bay live oak, the scrub oak, the plateau live oak, or the escarpment live oak.
These trees are endemic to the southern United States alone, and they are an iconic image of what the south looks like. They tend to grow along marshes, swamps, and like to stay close to the shore line.
These trees are very easily recognized, for their large and expansive branches that grow every which way and will sometimes even dip and touch the ground. They are covered in stiff and leathery green leaves, with thick and dark gray colored bark.
Southern live oaks aren’t really used for any commercial purposes in modernity. They span throughout the southern United States and provide nothing but beauty, and of course a place for many different moss species to grow.
95. The Bat Fig Tree (
Discover the Bat Fig Tree here.
is a flowering plant of the mulberry family, and it is native to the Mediterranean and western Asia. They have been naturalized in North America as well.
They prefer to grow in very wild, dry, and sunny locations. Some other common names include Indian bat tree, Indian bat fig, pimpri, pipri, pipali, and bilibasari tree.
Bat fig trees are evergreen trees that grow to be 25 meters in height. They have leathery green leaves and are most well recognized by their juicy and delectable fruits. Figs are attractants to many insect, animal, and bird species. These trees are also characterized by their dense aerial roots.
Bat fig trees are planted commercially for their fruit, and they are also planted in coffee plantations. This is because their dense foliage is very valued to help shade the coffee plants that tend to grow in very hot and sunny locations.
96. The Southern Magnolia Tree (
Take a closer look at Southern Magnolia Trees here.
The southern magnolia tree is also sometimes called a bull bay tree. They are part of the
family, and are native to the southeastern United States.
They tend to grow near bodies of water, including swamps, streams, lakes, and bogs. Southern magnolias are endemic to subtropical lowland forests along the Atlantic coastal plain.
These trees are easily recognized by their very large, white, and beautifully smelling flowers. Southern magnolias have very dark green glossy leaves, and can sometimes grow to heights of 30 meters or more. Magnolias are not used in any other way than as an ornamental tree.
97. The Blueberry Ash Tree (
The blueberry ash tree goes by many names. It is also commonly known as an ash quandong, blue olive berry tree, fairy petticoat tree, fringe tree, koda tree, lily of the valley tree, or scrub ash tree.
They grow in eastern Australia, and they prefer warm regions near rainforests, moist gullies, and sometimes stony ridges that receive a lot of precipitation.
These are small trees that only grow between 3 and 10 meters in height. They grow oblong in shape leaves and are known for having exceptionally beautiful pale pink flowers that have a bell shape. These flowers are said to smell like blueberries.
Blueberry ash trees are only used ornamentally, and will be chosen as either a feature tree because of their beautiful flowers and wonderful fragrance, or as a screen or shade tree for plants that are less heat loving.
98. The Coconut Palm Tree (
Learn all about the Coconut Palm Tree here.
Everybody knows what a coconut palm tree is. These trees are part of the
family, and the term cocos comes form the Portuguese world for “skull” which is indicative of the features that grow naturally on the face of the
These trees grow anywhere in the world where there is plenty of sunlight, nothing but warm weather, sandy soil, and ample rainfall. They will not grow in areas that don’t have all year long warm conditions.
Coconut palm trees are very tall, usually exceeding 30 meters in height, and are covered in very fibrous, hard, dark brown bark. Trunks are very slender and flexible, and meet a crown that is comprised of very long pinnately shaped leaves that are 4-6 meters long.
Coconut palm trees are one of the most useful trees in the world, and to many cultures are referred to as the “tree of life”. The provide materials to create furniture, they sustain us with milk, cream,
, fruit, flour, and they also go into making all sorts of wonderful cosmetic products as well.
99. The Peppermint Tree (
Take a closer look at Peppermint Trees here.
Peppermint trees go by many names. Some common ones include western Australian peppermint, swan rive peppermint, willow myrtle, or the indigenous people of Australia refer to them as a wanil, wonnow, wonong, or wannang tree.
The peppermint tree is one of the most recognizable trees of western Australia.
These trees apparently look like willow trees from afar. The have narrow and long leaves that hang gracefully from their twigs, and they are a dull green color. Their trunks are covered with red brown bark, and trees will usually reach heights between 3 and 10 meters.
Peppermint trees are cultivated all over Australia as garden and park trees, because of their brilliant white flowers and attractive shape. They are also known to have leaves that smell of peppermint when crushed, only adding to their appeal.
100. The Kumquat Tree (
Take a close look at Kumquat Trees here.
Kumquat trees are amazing. They are part of the
family and are a very cold hardy tree.
These trees are originally native to China and Japan. They have long been cultivated all over Asia, and were brought to Europe and North America in the early 1800’s.
Much like other citrus fruits, the kumquat tree requires very hot summers. But unlike other
citrus fruit trees
, kumquat trees can survive temperatures below freezing.
These are small little trees, growing to heights around 2 to 50 meters. They have dark green glossy leaves, white flowers, and of course, produce the ever delicious kumquat fruit in the summer time. Kumquat trees develop crowns with very dense branches and are sometimes covered in small thorns.
101. The Olive Tree (
Read about Olive Trees here.
Olive trees are ancient trees. When talking about the oldest trees on the planet, olive trees are not usually mentioned. This is odd, considering that the oldest known olive tree in over 3350 years old, which beats out the average life expectancy of redwood trees!
Olive trees are part of the
family, and are native to the Mediterranean basin, South Africa, South America, China, Australia, Mexico, and New Zealand as well.
They require warm and temperate climates in order to bear fruit. These trees are related to ash trees, lilcas, jasmine, and forsythia.
This evergreen tree only grows to be between 8 and 15 meters tall. They have gnarled trunks and twisted branches that create unusually shaped crowns. They have silvery green leaves that are oblong in shape, and small feathery white flowers.
The olive tree has been cultivated all over the world for thousands of years. The world would be a sad sad place with out olive oil. It is such an integral part to almost every culture’s cuisine!
Whew! That was a lot of trees! I know that I learned a lot researching all of those trees, so I hope that my enthusiasm and inspiration passed on to you. We hoped you enjoyed the different types of trees with pictures and names.
We wouldn’t be here without trees, and it is up to us to make sure that they keep living on in their evolutionary timescale.
Can dead ash trees be used for lumber?
Dead ash trees can be used for lumber. In fact, many construction companies and furniture makers love using ash trees because they can look astonishingly similar to other trees such as oak.
Even if ash trees are killed due to an Emerald Ash Boar (also known as “EAB”)infestation, they’re still useful for converting into lumber, since these pests don’t infest the interior part of the tree.
If you have a large dead ash tree, it can sell for a decent amount of money as lumber. You can also use it for personal projects or offer it as free firewood.
What trees are white?
While there are plenty of different types of trees with light-toned bark or interiors, the true white trees include birches, poplar, sycamore, gum, and aspen species.
Holly trees are among the whitest types of trees. They are popularly used as decorations during the holiday season.
Which trees live the longest?
, “Bristlecone Pines (Pinus Longaeva), Yew trees, and Ginkgo Biloba trees appear to be the longest lived on record.
They are commonly found in climates that are subject to change drastically.” Since these trees experience drastic change regularly, they learn how to become resilient and weather the storms of life (literally).
Which trees damage foundations?
shares, “The most common trees that damage building foundations include Norway maples, silver maples, oaks, ash, poplar, walnut, cottonwood, and sycamore trees. These trees have a high potential to do damage underground.”
What trees should not be planted close to a house?
Trees that you should never plant near a house include poplar trees, oak trees, and ash trees. Since each of these trees has a significant potential to damage a foundation, they’re best planted away from a property.
Do trees attract lightning?
If you’ve ever heard the advice to stay away from trees if you’re outdoors during a thunderstorm, you’ve heard sound advice. As
points out, trees create a path for the lightning to travel down, which makes them attract lightning.
What trees are worth the most money?
African Black Ebony Trees from Gabon are worth the most money in the world, according to
. Trees that are more common but still hold high value include oak trees, walnut trees, maple trees, cherry trees, and ashes.
A large, healthy tree that is not infested with any pests will rake in more cash than a tree that is small and sickly regardless of the type of tree.
Which trees are evergreen?
Referring to temperate evergreen climates,
explains that “Vegetation includes coniferous-evergreen tree species that produce cones and needles, dominated by spruce (Picea), pine (Pinus), fir (Abies), and hemlock (Tsuga) species, and the trees retain at least some of their needles year-round.”
Can trees get sick?
Just like people and animals, trees can and do get sick. Some diseases, such as the Emerald Ash Boar, only affect certain types of trees, while other problems are more generalized. Common tree illnesses include rust, leaf spots, and blight.
Which trees have the deepest roots?
Trees that have the deepest taproots, according to
, are Walnut trees, Black gum, Sweetgum, Sassafras, Butternut, Japanese Pagoda, Hickories, Pine trees, and hornbeam.
Which trees have sap?
As anyone who has had pancakes or visited Canada knows, maple trees have sap. However, they aren’t the only ones. Other trees that have sap include the English walnut tree, black walnut tree, white walnut tree, and heartnut tree.
What trees are in the desert?
While there are many types of species of trees in the desert, the most common ones include palm trees, cactus trees, and willow trees.
These trees tend to do best in warm or hot climates and dislike an excess of moisture, which makes the desert the perfect environment for them.
Which are the fastest-growing trees?
Fast-growing trees include weeping willows, hybrid poplars, river birches, dawn redwoods, Leyland cypress, and pin oaks.
All of these trees grow multiple feet per year, which makes them great trees to choose to shade your yard or enjoy the look of a tree on your property within a short timeframe.
101 Different Types of Trees (2023 List: Names, Species, Photos & Details)
50+ Types of Trees With Pictures and Facts - Quiet Minimal - Interior Design Inspiration & Ideas
We’re all familiar with at least a few different types of trees. But did you know that there are over 60,000 types of trees? These majestic plants are found all over the world. In fact, they grow on every continent except Antarctica.
I’ll walk you through 50+ tree names and pictures in this guide. So, you can browse through and become an expert on some of the most common tree types.
Or you can use this article as a way to identify a specific tree. You’ll soon become an expert on all the different types of trees in your neighborhood and further afield.
I’ll share all sorts of trees, from tropical trees names to mountain trees names. You’ll find that different varieties grow depending on the ecosystem. So, if you’ve ever wondered about tree types and their meanings, read on.
50 Popular Types of trees
1. Oak Trees
Oak trees are beautiful trees that grow to massive sizes if given a chance. But the process happens very slowly over hundreds of years. From a tiny acorn to a mighty oak, as the saying goes.
These trees are prized for their durable and valuable hardwood. In the past, it was a popular choice for furniture, wood paneling, and even building ships.
There are two main types of oaks, white oaks, and red oaks. As their name suggests, red oaks have darker bark than white oaks. But each type produces acorns, which you may find scattered over the ground near an oak tree.
2. Birch Trees
Birch trees are hardwood deciduous trees that are easy to spot. They have a silvery bark, although it can look white depending on the tree. The leaves are triangular, have a serrated edge, and droop downward.
There are eleven common types of birch trees such as the bog birch, cherry birch, and paper bark birch. There are also local varieties, including the Himalayan and the Japanese white birch.
They grow worldwide in temperate zones and look very pretty, especially in winter. During the colder seasons, it’s easier to notice the silvery look of their trunks.
3. Ash Trees
Ash trees have dense leaves that grow in a well-rounded crown, starting fairly low down. These trees often have a greyish bark and are very strong and dense. They can withstand all sorts of weather conditions and live for centuries.
Many ash trees grow up to around 60 or 70 feet tall. So, they’re not the tallest trees in the woods but still become a respectable size.
There are various types of ash trees, including the almost-extinct black ash tree. The
of this tree is favored for making guitars. But unfortunately, it’s been badly affected by an invasive bug species. And as a result, its numbers are dwindling.
4. Sycamore Trees
Sycamore trees are mighty hardwood trees that grow a huge trunk and a large, leafy crown. You’ll find that the trunk is covered with thinner, reddish bark.
They are popular choices in parks and gardens as they provide a lot of shade. Beneath a sycamore tree is an ideal place to have a picnic! Sycamores grow across Europe, North America, and certain parts of western Asia.
5. Maple Trees
Maple trees are easy to identify, thanks to their distinctive bright red leaves. These leaves also have a unique shape that you’ll recognize from the Canadian flag.
Maples are the national tree of Canada, but they grow much more widely than you might imagine. You can find them all across North America, but also in China and Japan. Maples are native to many other northern countries, too.
The sugar maple tree is perhaps the most famous type of maple. It produces that world-famous sweet maple syrup that tastes so good on pancakes. But even the varieties that don’t make sweet syrup look bright and beautiful.
6. Cedar Trees
These gorgeous trees are tall evergreens with needles and quite sparse trunks. The branches spiral up from the tree and give off a piney scent. You can find cedar trees in many countries, but they originated in the Mediterranean.
Cedars are hardwood trees that grow to great heights of 150+ feet. They look elegant, making them popular in parks and gardens as ornamental trees. And at the opposite end of the scale, you can also find tiny bonsai cedars. There are many varieties of cedar trees, including:
The Atlantic White Cedar
The Northern White Cedar
The Western Red Cedar
The Atlas Cedar
7. Juniper Trees
Junipers are often mistaken for cedar trees. But they are a different species of trees altogether. The difference is that a juniper tree is an evergreen tree rather than a deciduous one.
As small trees, junipers usually have spiky needles and dense little cones with a strong piney scent. But as they mature, these needles fan out into scaly leaves with clusters of needles.
While junipers can grow up to 100 feet tall, many stop at around 6 feet. So, you’ve probably seen more of the smaller, shrubby junipers than tall, elegant ones.
8. Willow Trees
When you think of a willow tree, you can probably picture this distinctive tree in your head. It’s easily identified by its low-hanging branches and oval leaves. These trees are often found near water, such as lakes, rivers, or streams.
As they’re deciduous trees, they lose their leaves in the winter. And in fact, there are many different types of willow trees, with over 400 in total. These include dwarf willows, smaller shrubs, and giant trees that tower above us.
9. Hickory Trees
Hickory trees grow across China, India, and much of North America. In these countries, they are popular as they produce edible nuts. They are related to walnut trees, and the pecan tree is also from the hickory tree family.
You can identify a hickory tree by looking at the nuts and leaves. Hickory leaves are large and end at a point, while the nuts have thick shells. This hardwood variety is useful for making baseball bats and hockey sticks.
10. Apple Trees
Apple trees are found worldwide and are easy to spot due to their bountiful fruit. There are many different varieties of apple trees (over seven thousand in total). These trees have been cultivated for their fruit for centuries, if not millennia.
They aren’t the tallest trees, growing to around forty feet or slightly less. The branches spread widely and are covered in beautiful blossoms during the spring. Then, in late summer and autumn, you’ll see the crop of apples.
11. Crabapple Trees
It’s easy to get confused between apple trees and crabapples. The second is a smaller variety of apple trees that often appear quite shrubby. They don’t get as big and are excellent additions to a garden or city park.
Brightly colored pink, orange, or purple blossoms bloom in abundance during the spring. And later in the year, they grow crabapples. Although these fruits are pretty sour, they’re
safe to eat.
But due to their sharp taste, they’re not as popular as regular apples.
12. Pear Trees
Pear trees are another fruit tree popular for their delicate white flowers. Thanks to its rich, autumnal shades, it also looks beautiful in the fall. Most pear trees bear juicy, tasty fruit. But some ornamental varieties are too small and can taste bitter.
13. Cherry Trees
Cherry trees also grow all over the world, from North America to Europe and Asia. They’re quite a sensation during the spring when people travel to see the amazing blossoms. Japan and Amsterdam are popular destinations to see cherry trees. They bloom with pink or white
that draw locals and tourists alike.
There are hundreds of varieties of cherry trees. These include the black cherry tree, pin cherry tree, sweet cherry tree, and sour cherry tree, to name a few.
Cherry trees tend to be medium in size and grow quickly. The wood can be used for furniture and is highly sought after and quite expensive.
14. Peach Trees
While we’re discussing fruit trees, we shouldn’t forget the peach tree. This tree is native to northwest China but has been exported worldwide. Now, you can find peach trees all over, but they grow best in temperature regions. They are of the same family as other stone fruit, such as the plum, apricot, and cherry trees.
Peach trees don’t grow to be very tall, reaching about 20 feet at their largest. They are best known for their pretty flowers and, of course, the juicy peaches in the late summer.
15. Fig Trees
The fig tree is a smaller variety native to western Asia and the Mediterranean. Humans have cultivated this tree for its fruit for thousands of years. And now, it grows almost all over the globe.
Notable features of this tree are its smooth white bark and fruit in the summer months. It tends to reach around 30 feet at its tallest and is a relatively hardy tree. But it will grow best when it gets warm temperatures and plenty of sunlight.
16. Banyan Trees
The banyan tree is perhaps less well known because it grows in much of Asia. But it can also be found growing naturally in Central and South America.
This tree is unique because it starts growing from another plant. First, the seed will fall into a crevice of a tree or land on another
. Then, the banyan tree will live off of this
until it eventually takes it over and kills it off. And that’s where the banyan tree gets the name ‘strangler fig.’
Banyan tree roots extend far around the tree instead of deep below the surface. These trees are best suited to wet soils in tropical climates. And you might not guess it, but they’re actually related to the fig tree.
17. Neem Trees
The neem tree is another exotic tree that grows in tropical areas of Asia. In particular, it’s found in Cambodia, Laos, India, and Thailand, among other countries.
It grows best in countries with plenty of rain and a warm temperature all year round. It won’t survive anywhere the temperature falls too low.
The neem tree is a fast grower and can reach up to 130 feet in height. It has wide branches and blooms with a vast quantity of white flowers in the springtime. But it’s considered a weed in some places as it can be pretty invasive.
18. Mahogany Trees
Mahogany trees have long been famous for their high-quality wood. These trees grow in Florida, the USA, and many Caribbean islands. It’s best suited to tropical regions with plenty of rain and sunlight.
These medium-sized trees can reach around 80 feet in height and have rich, dark trunks. Mahogany leaves are first red but turn green as they grow. Unfortunately, mahogany trees have been cultivated for their wood, leading to large-scale deforestation. But protections are now in place to protect this majestic tree.
19. Teak Trees
The teak tree is prized for its durable, weather-resistant wood. It’s often used to make furniture, boats, and flooring.
This tree grows to lofty heights of 130+ feet and has few branches along the trunk. There are more branches near the top of the trunk, making a small crown. The teak tree leaves are large but thin, with a smooth rather than serrated edge.
20. Walnut Trees
The walnut is another deciduous tree that grows to a large size. It has a large crown and rough bark that may look gray, light brown, or dark brown. The leaves grow alternately along the stem, and it also grows large walnuts in their shells. If you have a walnut tree nearby, you can collect them and eat them as a nutritious snack.
This robust and durable wood can also be used for all sorts of things. In particular, the wood of the black walnut tree is sought after.
21. Elm Trees
You’ll often find elm trees in forests or parks. They’re a great place to sit as they provide plenty of shade. And their low-hanging branches are tempting to climb on.
There are many varieties of elms, including the American elm, English elm, and the slippery elm.
Unfortunately, the Dutch Elm disease has affected many of these trees. But the ones that are still around are beautiful.
You may have heard of slippery elm bark used for traditional medicine. The indigenous people of North America first used it, and it’s still a popular alternative remedy.
22. Hawthorn Trees
The hawthorn tree grows across much of Asia, Europe, and North America. There are many different types and some great myths and tales linked to this tree. In some cultures, it’s seen as a fertility symbol.
Hawthorn trees are related to apple trees. They look pretty and delicate and don’t grow to great heights. So, they make nice ornamental trees along streets or in gardens. These trees produce edible fruits and strong-smelling flowers. These are the best way to identify a hawthorn tree.
23. Spruce Trees
Spruce trees are evergreens that grow widely across the northern USA and Canada. But originally, they came from the boreal regions of northern Europe. These trees can survive even the coldest temperatures and grow up to 200 feet.
There are many types of spruce trees, but all have prickly pine needs. They are commonly used as Christmas trees and also for lumber.
24. Fir Trees
Fir trees grow in cooler regions in the north of Europe, Asia, and North America. They thrive in cool, mountainous areas with loose, fertile soils. These hardy trees can survive in the coldest of temperatures. And of course, these trees are evergreens, so they don’t lose their leaves in the winter.
When you picture a Christmas tree, it’s probably a fir tree that comes to find. They have smooth, gray bark and soft, fragrant needles. There are many types of fir trees, including the balsam fir, Douglas fir, and balsam fir.
25. Beech Trees
In contrast with fir trees, the beech is a beautiful big leafy tree of the deciduous variety. These trees have a well-rounded crown of leaves, providing lots of shade. They look particularly eye-catching as the leaves change color in the fall.
Beech trees produce flowers called catkins as well as a fruit called beechnuts. While these nuts are edible, they taste very bitter and aren’t commonly eaten. There is a North American beech tree variety and a European beech tree species.
26. Cucumber Tree
One of the rarer trees, the cucumber tree grows in certain areas of the USA and Canada. It can mainly be found in Ontario and along the east coast. It gets its name from the unusual bright green fruit that looks like a large, fat cucumber.
The cucumber tree grows best in moist soil in wooded areas or low hills. If you cut a twig from this tree, it emits a lovely scent. These trees are sometimes used as ornamental trees. But although it has delicate flowers, they grow high up and are tricky to see.
27. Cottonwood Trees
Cottonwood trees are easily recognizable in the summer. That’s because they grow seeds covered in a soft, cottony covering.
This distinctive tree gets its name from these strange, fluffy seeds. Unfortunately, some people are allergic to these seeds, and the fluff can make a lot of mess, too.
A cottonwood tree can grow up to 80 feet, although many only reach around 50 feet. A notable feature is the large, heart-shaped leaves that taper to a point.
28. Cypress Trees
A tree originating from the Mediterranean region, the cypress is an evergreen. It produces acorn-like cones and doesn’t lose its leaves in the winter. The cypress leaves are soft and pointy, like a cross between needles and regular leaves.
Confusingly, there are true and false cypress trees. The true cypress varieties are the Mediterranean and the Monterey cypresses.
But others are actually from a different family of trees and are ‘fake’ cypresses. These include the Pond, Hinoki, Lawson, and bald cypress.
29. Eucalyptus Trees
The eucalyptus is a distinctive tree, thanks to its scented leaves. Eucalyptus oil is often used in alternative medicine for coughs and other ailments.
Eucalyptus bark is notable for its smooth appearance, although it can also look like it’s peeling. The tree produces flowers that can vary in
, and it can grow anywhere from 30 to 300 feet tall.
These trees are native to Australia, but they’ve been exported all over the world. They grow well in temperature and tropical areas rather than cooler or dry climates.
30. Magnolia Trees
The magnolia tree is well-known for its beautiful flowers. And as there are more than 100 varieties, they bloom throughout the year. The earliest magnolias flower in late March, but others will bloom much later in the year.
A few common types include pink magnolia and lily magnolia. Others are named after the areas where they thrive. For example, the southern magnolia and the mountain magnolia.
The leaves of the magnolia tree are thick, hardy, and feel quite rubbery. The magnolia fares best when it gets some sunlight every day, but it can cope with many soil types.
31. Dogwood Trees
Dogwood trees are common ornamental trees with beautiful white or yellow flowers. They grow across the eastern side of the USA and in northern Mexico. They need plenty of rainfall and sunlight to thrive.
The memorable name comes from the fact that dogwood bark could cure dogs of mange. And while the wood has been used for
, it’s not commonly used nowadays.
32. Poplar Trees
Poplars are fast-growing trees native to large swathes of the globe. They grow naturally in Europe, Asia, Africa, and North America. As they’re deciduous trees, they lose their leaves in the winter.
They have gray bark and grow clusters of flowers called catkins in the springtime. Some of the most common of this species include the balsam poplar, white poplar, and black poplar.
33. Horse Chestnut Trees
Horse chestnuts are large deciduous trees that can grow to huge heights. They can live for over 300 years and have a large, well-rounded crown that provides shade.
A horse chestnut is recognized by its distinctive round leaves and great height. Plus, you’re sure to notice the shiny round conkers inside their spiky green cases. These grow throughout the year and fall when ripe in the autumn months.
34. Larch Trees
These cone-shaped deciduous trees are easy to spot. They grow flat needles that are soft rather than pointy. But unlike most conifers, they lose their needles in the winter. So, they stand out against other evergreen coniferous varieties. Common varieties include the European larch, the western larch, and the alpine larch.
35. Palm Trees
A very different tree, the palm tree grows in hot, tropical areas. They can be found in tropical regions of the Americas, Asia, Australia, and Africa. There are different types of palm trees, including the date palm, coconut palm, and oil palm. But in fact, there are more than 2,600 different varieties of palm trees.
36. Linden Trees
Linden trees have distinctive leaves that look like hearts. They bloom with pale yellow flowers in the spring. They also look spectacular in the autumn months when the leaves turn yellow.
These trees can grow from medium to large, ranging from 70 to 130 feet. They have a large well-rounded crown of branches and leaves.
37. Acacia Trees
Acacia trees are endemic in Australia and some parts of Africa. They also grow well in certain states in the southern USA, where they get plenty of sun.
These trees grow fast and need very little maintenance. They’re used to warm climates, so they don’t need much rainfall to survive.
38. Sumac Trees
Compared to some of these large trees, the sumac can look tiny in contrast. Sumacs tend to be smaller trees or shrubs, reaching 30 feet at their highest.
Depending on the time of year, you can identify a sumac by its white berries and clusters of red berries. The leaves also transform into gorgeous autumnal reds and purples in the fall.
39. Mulberry Trees
Mulberry trees are popular and grow across the world in temperate zones. They produce small berries that can be black, red, or white. Mulberries were used to treat ailments in traditional medicine in the past.
Mulberry trees are fast-growing, but they don’t tend to bear fruit for around ten years.
40. River Red Gum Trees
This tree is native to Australia and doesn’t grow anywhere else in the world. These trees thrive in areas prone to flooding and often grow near rivers or ponds. It’s an evergreen flowering tree that comes under the umbrella of the eucalyptus family.
Furniture makers prize the river red gum tree for its sturdy red wood. And in their natural environment, many creatures find their homes in these trees. That includes many types of birds as well as bats and snakes.
41. Hemlock Trees
Hemlock trees are evergreens from the pine family that grow across North America. These trees are often very tall, reaching more than 200 feet.
The distinctive conical shape of hemlock trees makes them easy to identify. They also grow lots of small cones and have long, soft needles. The bark is a reddish-brown color.
42. Redwood Trees
Redwood trees hardly need any introduction as they’re such an iconic species. They’re the tallest trees in the world and can grow to more than 300 feet. These giant trees have slim trunks and rich red bark. This large tree species thrives in areas with plenty of rainfall and humidity.
43. Monkey Puzzle Trees
The monkey puzzle tree is a unique species that’s very easy to identify. It looks bizarre but attractive in a quirky way. These trees originally come from the mountainous regions of Chile and Argentina.
But they’ve since been exported around the world. If you’d like to see one, you can find them in botanic gardens all over Europe and North America.
The monkey puzzle’s leaves are spiky and scaly. They spiral out along the trunk and the branches of this evergreen tree.
44. Peppermint Trees
Despite the name, this tree doesn’t produce peppermint, which is actually a herb. But its flowers smell very like peppermint, hence the name. These native Australian trees have many other names, such as the willow myrtle. And in fact, they look quite similar to willow trees as the long leaves droop downward.
45. Kumquat Trees
Kumquat trees are hardy trees that can survive cool temperatures. They’re of the citrus family and grow across much of Asia. But although they can withstand the cold, they need hot summers to produce their fruit. These trees are small with thick, glossy leaves and may have thorny branches. They bloom with white flowers, and in the summer, they carry dense crops of kumquats.
46. Lemon Trees
The lemon tree is an evergreen flowering tree of the citrus family. It grows natively in India, Myanmar, and China. But you’ll also find it in many other countries around the world, although it grows best in tropical regions. In fact, there are more than thirty different types of lemon trees.
The lemon tree reaches around 10 to 20 feet in height and has small oval leaves. It may have thorny branches and produces lemons after around 5-6 years.
47. Orange Trees
The orange tree is another relatively small citrus variety. It grows to around 20 to 30 feet and doesn’t need much maintenance.
However, you’ll find that it grows best in warm climates. They can’t survive extended periods below freezing temperature.
It produces beautiful, delicate flowers in the summer with a strong, heady scent. Its crop of oranges is ready later in the year, often in the late autumn or winter months.
48. Argan Trees
Argan trees are endemic to Morocco and can survive arid climates. But due to this, these trees grow slowly and don’t reach great heights.
The argan tree has thorny branches to deter animals from eating the argan nuts it produces. These nuts are used to create argan oil for cooking and cosmetic use. And the pulp around the nut is useful for feeding livestock, so nothing is wasted.
49. Olive Trees
The olive tree is often considered a Mediterranean tree. But it also grows in many other places, including Australia, Mexico, and China. It’s one of the oldest trees in existence and can live for thousands of years. These trees grow slowly and produce a crop of olives each year when healthy. They’re essential for providing olives and olive oil for many cuisines.
50. Holly Trees
Last but not least on my list is the holly tree. They vary from small, bushy shrubs to large trees that grow up to 80 feet. These plants are evergreen and often have more than one main stem.
The holly tree is easy to recognize from its thick, shiny, spiky leaves. It produces rich red berries in the winter that look pretty but are toxic to humans. Sprigs of holly are sometimes used as Christmas decorations.
Tree Types FAQ
What are the most common trees?
The most common trees in the world are red alders, although pine trees are close behind. In the USA, the most common trees are the red maple, loblolly pine, and the American sweetgum. And in Europe, it’s the Norwegian spruce, silver fir, beech, oak, and ash trees.
What is the smallest tree in the world?
The smallest tree in the world is the dwarf willow which grows to only 2.3 inches in total. It grows in subarctic and arctic climes. Its small sizer helps it to survive in these harsh regions.
Now, you should be an expert on the most common types of trees. From winter trees names to mountain
and trees names, we’ve covered so many varieties.
These pictures of trees with names will help you feel confident identifying trees. And you also know the distinctive features of these trees. So, you should be able to spot some of these trees when you’re out and about.
76 Types of Trees Identification - Names, Facts, Photos | Happy DIY Home
Every type of tree plays a key role in the ecosystem, and they provide shelter, shade, oxygen, and they can produce fruit. To date, there are over 60,000 types of grees available that come in a host of sizes and shapes. Identifying the tree types means looking at the bark and leaves because some come with star-shaped ones while others are wider and more oval-shaped.
have needle-shaped leaves.
You can classify all types of trees as either evergreen or deciduous. Deciduous trees will shed the leaves at certain points during the year, and evergreen trees keep the leaves throughout the year.
These woody perennial plants fall into the Plantae kingdom. All tree species get grouped based on their family, genus, and order, and this makes identifying various types of trees much easier. We’re going to outline quick facts about 76 types of trees and show you pictures of each one to make identifying them easier.
CC BY-NC 2.0
Two Tree Categories
We mentioned that the thousands of types of trees all narrow down to two broad categories, and they are:
These trees will shed their leaves each year, and this usually happens in the fall months. The name deciduous means to fall off at maturity, and the trees will remain bare until the spring and warmer weather.
In Europe and North America, these tees will start to lose the leaves in the fall months, including the walnut, oak, and elm varieties. The leaves usually turn pretty colors before they fall from the trees. In tropical areas, the trees will lose their leaves during the dry seasons.
Evergreen trees keep their leaves all year-round, and
spruce, and fir trees all fall into this category. There are roughly 14 groups of evergreen trees, and they’ll give you nice pops of color in your garden or landscape design all year-round.
76 Types of Trees with Pictures
The following shortlist has some of the most popular types of trees available that are hardy and low-maintenance.
Acacia are thorny trees and shrubs that fall into the evergreen family. They have fern-like leaves with pretty clusters of whtie or yellow fuzzy flowers. The fruit looks like a peapod that can be twisted, coiled, or straight. The pods can also be clusters of black, brown, or green.
CC BY-NC 2.0
Alder trees have drooping flower clusters with woody, brown cones that are known as strobiles. The cones develop from conical flower clusters called catkins, and they stay on the tree until spring to add texture to the bare branches. This tree has a huge rounded crown, brown conifer-like cones, and serrated leaves in green hues.
CC BY-NC 2.0
fall into a genus of bigger trees in the Rosaceae family, and they produce very fragrant flowers in spring before giving way to an apple crop. The leaves are egg-shaped and alternate, and most apple tree types feature ovate leaves that are pointed.
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This type of tree is an evergreen conifer that offers feathery, lush foliage. You can get different types that come as small conical trees, columnar trees, or rounded shrubs. The trees and shrubs work wonderfully for wide hedges, natural privacy screens, specimen trees, or living fences.
Oregon State University
CC BY-SA 2.0
Ash trees showcase pinnately compound, large leaves. The leaves have a slightly oval but narrow shape to them with five to seven leaflets. Mature ash are types of trees with ridges in the bark that form diamond shapes, and the branches will grow oppositely from one another.
Ash trees on the Downs
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This type of tree is a medium-sized, flowering deciduous tree that falls into the Populus genus. You’ll get a tree with a slender and straight trunk, round leaves with serrated edges, and whitish-gray bark. The dangling flower clusters are called catkins.
Amy Aletheia Cahill
CC BY-ND 2.0
American Basswood types of trees are a fast-growing option that have whitish-yellow flowers, a domed crown, and big heart-shaped leaves with a pointed tip and serrated edges. The leaves on this deciduous tree will turn yellow and fall during the autumn months.
CC BY 2.0
Beech types of trees are popular for
, and they’re tall trees with ovate, green leaves with finely toothed edges. You get a rounded, dense crown, and the foliage will turn a pretty shade of yellow, orange, and golden brown from the more traditional green.
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Birch trees come with triangular-shaped, small leaves with sligh serration on the edges. The bark on this tree is instantly recognizable as its papery, and it can be white or gray, depending on the species you have in your yard.
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10. Black Tupelo Tree
This is a very attractive, ornamental type of tree that is medium-sized. It’s native to North America in the Nyssaceae family, and you may hear it called the sour or black gum. It offers dark green glossy leaves in an oval shape, bark that looks and feels like alligator skin, and clusters of blackish-blue fruit and greenish-white flowers.
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The Buckeye is an ornamental deciduous type of tree in the Sapindaceae family and the Aesculus genus. It’s related to the horse chestnut, and it can get between 12 and 40 feet tall. The round, large but indelible seeds look like the eye of a buck. It also offers pretty green leaves with
red or yellow flower clusters
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This is another deciduous flowering ornamental type of shade tree with triangular or heart-shaped large leaves. They have yellow or white flowers that are fragrant with slender, dangling seed pods that stick around until the spring or late winter. They start out green and turn to brown as the season wears on.
Linda De Volder
CC BY-NC-ND 2.0
Cedar trees offer scale leaves that grow in spiral clusters in greenish-blue or dark green coloring. You could get anywhere from 15 to 45 clusters on short shoots to make up the branches, and it’s a very woody, fragrant tree.
Sun Shining on Cedars
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Cherry types of trees offer stunning pinkish-white blossoms in the spring from March to April that cover the branches. They have oval, glossy-green leaves with serrated edges and pointed tips. The
grows best in zones five to nine, but there are cold-hardy species that survive to zone four.
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Chestnut trees are easy to identify because of the clusters of spiky burrs that grow and contain the fruit. The fruit is a brown-shelled nut with a white flesh. You’ll get a broad, straight trunk with a big spreading canopy and deeply furrowed bark.
CC BY-ND 2.0
16. Chinaberry Tree
This very fast-growing type of tree is native to Australia, India, and Southeast Asia. It’s a deciduous tree that is in the Meliacea family and the Melia genus. All parts of the plant are poisonous to pets and humans, so be leery around it.
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Chokecherry is a type of tree on the smaller side that can also be a shrub with multiple stems that sends up suckers. It can get between 3 and 20 feet tall at full maturity, and up to 20 feet wide. It’s also not unusual for this type of tree to get up to 30 feet tall.
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This is one of the largest gymnosperm groups in each continent except Antarctica, and it has over 800 species. These trees don’t produce fruit or flowers, and it is one of the tallest growing trees in North America because it includes the Giant Sequoias. They produce a nice supply of timber and in paper production.
Sun in the Trees
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Cottonwood is a type of tree that is very common in parts of Asia, Europe, and North America. They offer cheap timber, have fast growth, and do very well in arid environments or wetlands. They will produce cotton-like, fluffy strands in the early summer months that can be a nuisance to clean up.
Fabulous Fall Cottonwoods
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This is a stunning ornamental flowering type of tree, and the
flowers come in shades of white, pink, red, orange, and purple. They also produce very tart, small fruits called crabapples, and you get deep green leaves in the summer months.
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21. Crape Myrtle Trees
The ornamental type of tree is part of the Lagerstroemia genus with flowering shrubs and trees that do well in warm climates. It’s a shrub-like tree that has evergreen or deciduous foliage, multiple stems, peeling colorful bark, and bushy growth habits. They do well in zones 7 to 10.
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True types of cypress trees are part of the Cupressus genus. They offer feathery, soft evergreen foliage and cones that resemble larger acorns. Types of trees like the Monterey cypress or the Mediterranean cypress are considered to be true cypress trees. It gives you year-round interest.
Gary J. Wood
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are pretty deciduous flowering trees that fall into the Cornus genus and offer distinctive bark, berries, flowers, and leaves. They bloom in the early spring and are usually white, but you can find pink, pale red, or yellow flowers. They’re small to medium-sized, and they grow between 10 and 25 feet high.
Carol Von Canon
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Elm is a type of tree with a very dense, thick hardwood, but you can find beautiful, ornamental types too. This tree has broad leaves that are between 7 and 16 centimeters long, and the ovate shape will form a point. The bark is a brownish-gray color with a scaly look and deep furrows. The seeds are round and small, and they get protected by a samara, or a papery casing.
Elm Trees in Fall
Draculina & Kid
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Eucalyptus plants are flowering shrubs and trees that have over 700 species. Some species can get an impressive 330 feet tall, and the shrubs or mallees get up to 33 feet tall. It has a very sharp scent.
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types of trees or plants are notable for how long they survive both in the wild and as a houseplant. They have very minimal care requirements, and they’re low-growers that love artificial light. They’re easy to naturalize into your garden.
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This type of tree will thrive in much warmer climates, and they grow fruits that have a nutty taste to them. Despite the reputation of growing in areas that have longer summers, you can keep them indoors as a houseplant in colder or temperate climates and have them do well.
Magnificent Fig Tree
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Fir types of trees are evergreen, large conifer species that you find growing in forests in Asia, Europe, and North America. They have needle-like leaves that will stay green all year-round. Some species like balsam, Fraser, and noble fir are popular for use as Christmas trees.
Fir Tree Reflection
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29. Ginkgo Biloba
This is a very slow-growing,
columnar type of tree
that offers very big fan-shaped leaves that turn a pretty yellow in the fall months. This is the only species of tree left in the Ginkgoaceae family and the Ginkgo genus, and they get between 50 and 75 feet high at full maturity.
Ginkgo Leaves (Ginkgo Biloba)
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This is a group of deciduous, medium-sized types of trees that offer clusters of fuzzy, small spring flowers, ovate leaves, and purple fruit. It’s a very low-maintenance choice, and they’re hardy enough to withstand different conditions, including wet soil, drought, air pollution, and high winds.
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The leaves of this type of tree come in several shapes. Some hawthorn trees have leaves that look like big parsley leaves due to being deeply lobed. Others will have shallow lobes and an ovate shape.
Mike Seager Thomas
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32. Hazel Tree
Hazel is a group of multi-stemmed, large shrubs or trees in the Corylus genus and birch family. They produce round, tasty
when they mature, and you can identify the trees or shrubs by the round leaves with toothed edges. They also have cylindrical, dangling flower clusters.
Corkscrew Hazel Tree
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Hemlock types of trees are bigger evergreen coniferous trees that are part of the pine family and native to North America. You can identify hemlock by the slat, needle-like leaves that are very aromatic, conical shape, reddish-brown bark, and their cylindrical or oval seed-bearing cones.
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You can identify hickory trees by the bigger green leaves that come to a pointed tip at the end. The leaves also grow in an alternating pattern on the stem. You’ll get edible nuts that come in a double shell with this tree.
Bitternut Hickory Tree
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Holly trees will get between 30 and 80-feet tall, but the holly bushes can get up to six feet tall. They are multi-stemmed plants, and the leaves are usually oblong or ovate with green, glossy coloring. The leaves have wavy margins that are serrated, spiked, or smooth. Some of the most eye-catching varieties are variegated cultivars, and they produce indelible berry-like fruits.
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Hornbeam types of trees do well in partial shade or full sun, and they will grow well in any soil as long as they drain well. The hardy American hornbeam can grow in zones three to nine, and the European hornbeam will grow in zones four to seven.
The Old Hornbeam
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37. Horse Chestnut
This is a large species of deciduous flowering trees that fall into the Aesculus genus. It offers stout branches and rounded to oval crown shape, and it can get between 50 and 70 feet tall and 65 feet wide. They like to grow in zones three to eight.
Horse Chestnut Tree
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38. Jacaranda Tree
This is a very pretty type of tree that will flower and work as an
in your landscape. It offers clusters of blueish-purple trumpet-shaped flowers. It also has pretty fern-like foliage with an umbrella-like canopy that spreads out.
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Juniper trees are very fast-growing types of trees that can survive surprisingly well in even the most harsh climates. You’ll get a strong trunk with a branching canopy with dark green leaves, and there are also shrubs in the same family.
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This type of tree has several stems, but you can also grow it as a single-stem tree with an eye-catching rounded, pyramidal crown. Additionally, you’ll spot finely serrated, heart-shaped leaves in dark green that will slowly turn to a yellowish-gold color in the fall months. They emit a caramel, sugary aroma.
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41. Kentucky Coffee
This unique type of tree is the only native tree in the Fabaceae family and the Gymnocladus genus. As you may have guessed from the name, the tree produces seeds that you can roast to get a coffee-like beverage.
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Larch types of trees are coniferous, deciduous trees in the Larix genus and Pinaceae family. They have a pyramidal growth habit that is easily identifiable, just like most conifers. However, this tree will turn a golden-yellow color in the autumn months before dropping the needles or leaves. ‘
Larch on the Mountains
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Also referred to as the sweet bay, this type of tree does well in warmer climates as a potted shrub, tree, or an evergreen hedge. It’s native to the Mediterranean, and it’ll get between 23 and 60 feet tall. It’s a multi-stemmed variety or a large shrub with dark green, aromatic leaves in a lance shape. It also produces smaller black berries and
Linda, Fortuna Future
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Linden trees are big deciduous shade trees that have clusters of fragrant whitish-yellow flowers and big heart-shaped broadleaves. During the fall months, the leaves switch to a deep golden yellow color, and there are roughly 30 species of shrubs and trees in this category that grow between 65 and 130 feet tall and 50 feet wide.
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Locust trees are very hardy types of trees that have a durable and hard wood that gets used to make fence posts, furniture, small boats, and flooring. You can identify this type of tree by looking at the bark color, flowers, tree height, the thorns, and at the color and shape of the seed pods.
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is technically a genus of big flowering shrubs that are in the Magnoliaceae family. These types of trees or shrubs will grow as a single trunk tree or a multi-stemmed shrub. It’s a pretty landscape tree that offers fragrant purple, pink, white, or yellow flowers with cone-like fruits and leathery, glossy leaves.
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This tree’s rich brown wood gets darker as this type of tree ages. The leaves will be larger and have an oval shape to them, and they will grow opposite of each other one the stem. It’s a much larger tree with a spreading canopy.
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Maples can be anything from woody shrubs that grow up to 33 feet tall or huge majestic types of trees that get up to 150 feet tall. The biggest identifying feature on this tree is the lobed leaves that grow in opposite patterns on the branches.
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is actually the name for several big deciduous shrub-like trees in the pea family and Prosopis genus. They’re much shorter with feathery leaves, yellow or white flowers, and seed pods with peas. They do well planted in zones 7 to 11 as long as they’re in well-draining soil and a sunny location.
Old Mesquite Tree
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The Persian Silk or Mimosa tree is a very quick-growing ornamental type of tree that offers pink, silky pom-pom fluffy flowers. You’ll also see flat, brown, been-like seed pods and fern-like leaves. It’s a deciduous tree that is native to Asia.
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Mulberry types of trees are popular deciduous plants that produce edible black, red, or white berry-like fruits. Commonly referred to as mulberries, these berry-producing, medium-sized trees have spikes of small white flowers, heart-shaped leaves, and brownish-gray bark on the trunk.
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Most oak species are deciduous trees, but you can also find evergreen options like the live oak. They offer identifiable lobed leaves with rounded or pointed tips. They can also produce acorns that are nuts in an oval shape that sit in a cupule, or a small cup-like structure.
Oak Tree in the Mist
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type of tree is a flowering tree or shrub in the Bauhinia genus and Fabaceae family. They are native to Asia, and you will seem them growing throughout China, India, Vietnam, and Sri Lanka. Some species in this category also grow in Texas in the wild in the Anacacho mountains.
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54. Ornamental Flowering Pear
Ornamental pear types of trees are drought and heat-tolerant, and they can resist a lot of fruit tree diseases. This makes this flowering pear tree popular to put in your back or front yard. They grow well when planted in zones five through nine.
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55. Palo Verde
This is a group of big flowering shrubs or smaller trees with yellow pea-like flowers, green branches, small leaves, and brown seed pods that start to appear right after a heavy rainfall. It’s a deciduous desert tree that is native to Arizona, California, and Mexico’s arid, hot regions.
Palo Verde Tree
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The pine tree is one of the most popular types of trees in North America, and they offer straight, tall trunks with needle-like leaves. The leaves grow right to the top of the tree, and this makes them easy to identify.
Pine Tree Forest 01
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This is a group of
, small shrubs or trees that are famous for their exotic, highly scented flowers. These flowers are shaped like a star, and you can find them in shades of yellow, red, white, pink, or multi-colored.
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Poplar types of trees are big deciduous trees that have triangular or rounded leaves, small drooping clusters of flowers, and grayish bark. A lot of poplar trees are ones that you can identify by looking at the color of the bark, and it’ll be black, gray, or white. The height will vary from species to species, and they do well growing in zones three to nine.
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59. Purple Leaf Plum
The purple leaf plum type of tree will get between 15 and 25 feet tall at full maturity, and it grows best in zones four to nine. The flowers on this tree are some of the first to show up in the springtime. The single small white or pink flowers grow in tight clusters, and they’ll cover the whole tree.
Purple Leaf Plum in Bloom
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You can identify redbud types of trees by the heart-shaped leaves and pink flowers. A lot of cultivars in this species have different colors for the flowers and tree size. You can have anything from dark pink flowers to whtie or light pink coloring.
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Redwoods are some of the tallest and largest types of trees on earth. They are famous for their towering heights, and the tallest can reach up to 360 feet. Redwood trees require very humid conditions with a large amount of rainfall during the winter, fall, and spring months to thrive. The foggy conditions in the northern Pacific coast allow these trees to do amazingly well.
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Sassafras are a group of types of deciduous trees, and three species are native to Asia and North America, including Sassafras randaiense, Sassafras albidum, and Sassafras tzumu. The common species will mature between 30 and 60 feet tall and 24 to 40 feet wide, so it needs room to spread out.
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Serviceberry is a group of smaller deciduous fruit types of trees, or they can be multi-stemmed shrubs with pretty white flowers. You can identify these trees or shrubs by the oval, long leaves with fine serration on the edges, smooth gray bark, clusters of five-petaled white flowers, and round, small edible purple fruits.
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The smoke tree is a stunning
autumn type of tree
or large shrub with pretty green or purple foliage with feathery clusters of flowers that look like puffs of smoke. Also referred to as the smoke bush, this colorful tree gives spectacular visual interest in your garden from early spring to fall.
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This type of tree is native to the Eastern portion of the United States, including Louisiana, Florida, Pennsylvania, and North Carolina. The name comes from the tree’s edible but bitter foliage. This is a relatively small tree species that is slow-growing, and it’ll reach between 20 and 30 feet wide and tall.
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Spruce trees have cones that are cylindrical and long and they hang down from the branches. The leaves are rows of needles in silver-green, greenish-blue, or green coloring. These trees make up a lot of forests in the United states, and they’re an evergreen coniferous tree.
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Sumac is a type of free or shrub that flowers. You can identify this tree by the conical clusters, fern-like pinnate leaves, and green or white flowers with fuzzy red berries. During the fall months, these shrubs and trees turn a pretty shade of orange, red, or purple to create an eye-catching display.
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This is an ornamental flowering deciduous type of tree in the Altingiaceae family and the Liquidambar genus. You can find this tree growing from Florida to Connecticut in eastern North America, and they also grow as far west as Oklahoma, Missouri, and Texas.
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come with bark that will easily flake off, and this gives the trunk on this type of tree a multicolored, reddish-brown look. They have big lobed leaves that look like maple leaves, and the leaves will grow on the stems in an alternate pattern.. They have toothed edges and three to five lobes.
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This type of tree thrives in very hot climates where it adds strong fragrances, color, and beauty to your landscape. This medium-sized to small type of tree is very easy to grow in full sun as a shade tree or an ornamental one, and they grow very well in containers. It’s a very showy flowering tree with light purple, pink, or bright yellow flowers.
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have ovate and large leaves with a smooth surface and smooth edges. They are huge deciduous types of trees in the Tectona genus. Some can get up to 131 feet tall, and the branches have papery, thin leaves.
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Also referred to as the tulip tree or tulip poplar, this type of tree is very easy to identify when you spot it due to the pyramidal canopy, straight trunk, and greenish-yellow flowers. During the fall months, the leaves take on a golden yellow hue. The trumpet-like or cup-shaped flowers appear later in the spring and contrast nicely with the bright green leaves.
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Vitex or chaste trees are a big multi-stemmed shrub or very small tree that offers spikes of
during the summer months. Even though this isn’t technically a tree, it’ll grow into a very bushy and full shrub. In warmer climates, it can grow into a small, multi-trunked tree.
Forest and Kim Starr
CC BY 2.0
The walnut tree has leaves that alternate on the stem and feature leaflets that grow opposite of one another. They also tend to be very big, massive trees that can reach 33 to 131 feet with a very large spread.
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Yew is a genus of very slow-growing types of trees that are coniferous evergreens and shrubs. They live for a long time, and they can survive hundreds or thousands of years with the right conditions. They get between 35 and 65 feet tall and up to 20 feet wide.
Yew Tree planted in 1708 ( 314 years old )
John K Thorne
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The short centralized trunk on this type of tree with spreading branches make it easy to identify, especially when you look at the vase-shaped crown. It has whitish-gray peeling bark with a lighter orange bark on the inside. You’ll see big serrated leaves in an ovate shape that turn yellow, orange, and red in the fall. The tiny flower clusters are also yellow, and it has nut-like drapes.
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You can look at this list of 76 types of trees to find the ones that will complement your landscape design and look nice all year-round. Make sure your tree is hardy to your climate zone, and pay close attention to care instructions to ensure that it thrives.
List of 50 Trees
A-Z Guide - British Trees - Woodland Trust
Trees woods and wildlife
Pollution fighter, autumn stunner, syrup maker. The field maple is a sturdy broadleaf, which supports caterpillars, aphids, and all their predators, all while resisting air pollution.
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Tree - Classification and importance | Britannica
Of all the products that come from trees, those that are wood-based are by far of the greatest importance (
). Carbonized and fossilized wood (coal) supplies fuel for energy needs; other fossilized products of trees include
, which is formed from the gum of
gum. From earliest times
has been employed for such items as homes, rafts, canoes, fuel, and weapons.
peoples were dependent on trees for many materials in addition to wood. Fruits and nuts of many kinds were important foods for both humans and animals. Leaves of palms and other trees were used for thatching roofs. Cloth and woven fabrics made from
, leaves, and other tree parts were used for clothing. Utensils were fashioned from
, and other fruits. Medicines, including
, were obtained from trees, as were dyes,
materials, and spices.
Modern civilizations are no less dependent on trees. Although substitutes now are commonly used for some tree products, the demand for trees remains strong, as in the manufacture of newsprint and other papers, as well as cardboard and similar packagings. The
immense numbers of trees into building materials.
Many tree products other than wood and its derivatives are important. Edible
produced by trees include
, and others in temperate climates;
fruits in warm-temperate and subtropical regions;
in tropical regions; and the important
of desert regions—the
), and the
) are important sources of oils and fats used as food and for other purposes. From trees come such
; substances used in beverages, such as
, the basis of
. Nonedible tree products exploited commercially include
The history of
use includes incidences of waste, sometimes bordering on elimination of a species from a particular region. Great forests of
cedars of Lebanon
), for example, were virtually eliminated during early historic times in lumbering operations for such purposes as the construction of King Solomon’s
and palace. Forests that covered much of the Mediterranean region and the
were extravagantly exploited by the Assyrians, Babylonians, Greeks, and Romans. Today the once vast
basin and parts of
danger of being deforested primarily for farmland.
15 Astounding Facts About Trees
It's hard to overstate the importance of trees. Their debut more than 300 million years ago was a turning point for Earth, helping transform its surface into a bustling utopia for land animals. Trees have fed, housed and otherwise nurtured countless creatures over time, including our own arboreal ancestors.
Modern humans rarely live in trees, but that doesn't mean we can live without them. About
3 trillion trees
currently exist, enriching habitats from old-growth forests to city streets. Yet despite our deep-rooted reliance on trees, we tend to take them for granted. People clear millions of forested acres every year, often for short-term rewards despite long-term risks like desertification, wildlife declines and climate change. Science is helping us learn to use trees' resources more sustainably, and to protect vulnerable forests more effectively, but we still have a long way to go.
Earth now has
46% fewer trees
than it did 12,000 years ago, when agriculture was in its infancy. Yet despite all the deforestation since then, humans still can't shake an instinctive fondness for trees. Their mere presence has been shown to make us calmer, happier and more creative, and often boosts our appraisal of property value. Trees hold deep symbolism in many religions, and cultures around the planet have long appreciated the
benefits of plants
We still periodically pause to honor trees, with ancient holidays like Tu Bishvat as well as newer tributes like
, the International Day of Forests, or World Environment Day. In hopes of helping that spirit linger longer throughout the year, here are a few lesser-known facts about these gentle, generous giants.
1. Earth Has More Than 60,000 Known Tree Species
Brazil's many native trees include jabuticaba, whose fruits grow directly on its trunk.
Adriano Makoto Suzuki
/ Flickr / CC BY 2.0
Until recently, there was no thorough global census of tree species. But in April 2017, the
results of a "huge scientific effort" were published
in the Journal of Sustainable Forestry, along with a searchable online archive called GlobalTreeSearch.
The scientists behind this effort compiled data from museums, botanical gardens, agricultural centers and other sources, and concluded there are 60,065 tree species currently known to science. These range from Abarema abbottii, a vulnerable limestone-bound tree found only in the Dominican Republic, to Zygophyllum kaschgaricum, a rare and poorly understood tree native to China and Kyrgyzstan.
Next up for this area of research is the Global Tree Assessment, which aims to assess the conservation status of all of the world's tree species and have it published on the
IUCN Red List of Threatened Species
by 2025. This is a massive undertaking, and so far
77% of all trees
have a published conservation assessment.
2. More Than Half of All Tree Species Exist Only in a Single Country
The dragon's blood tree is a vulnerable species endemic to Yemen's Socotra archipelago.
Aside from quantifying the biodiversity of trees, the 2017 census highlighted the need for details about where and how those 60,065 different species live. Nearly 58% of all tree species are single-country endemics, the study found, meaning each one naturally occurs only within the borders of a single nation.
Brazil, Colombia, and Indonesia have the highest totals for endemic tree species, which makes sense given the overall biodiversity found in their native forests. "The countries with the most country-endemic tree species reflect broader plant diversity trends (Brazil, Australia, China) or islands where isolation has resulted in speciation (Madagascar, Papua New Guinea, Indonesia)," the study's authors wrote.
3. Trees Didn't Exist for the First 90% of Earth's History
Earth is 4.5 billion years old, and plants may have colonized land as recently as 470 million years ago, most likely mosses and liverworts without deep roots. Vascular plants followed about 420 million years ago, but even for tens of millions of years after that, no plants grew more than about 3 feet (1 meter) off the ground.
4. Before Trees, Earth Was Home to Fungi That Grew 26 Feet Tall
From about 420 million to 370 million years ago, a mysterious genus of creatures named
grew large trunks up to 3 feet (1 meter) wide and 26 feet (8 meters) in height. Scientists have long debated whether these were some kind of weird ancient trees, but a
from the University of Chicago and the National Museum of Natural History in Washington, D.C. concluded they were fungi, not plants.
"A 6-meter fungus would be odd enough in the modern world, but at least we are used to trees quite a bit bigger," study author and paleobotanist C. Kevin Boyce
told New Scientist in 2007
. "Plants at that time were a few feet tall, invertebrate animals were small, and there were no terrestrial vertebrates. This fossil would have been all the more striking in such a diminutive landscape."
5. The First Known Tree Was a Leafless, Fernlike Plant From New York
Several kinds of plants have evolved a tree form, or "arborescence," in the past 300 million years or so. It's a tricky step in plant evolution, requiring innovations like sturdy trunks to stay upright and strong vascular systems to pump up water and nutrients from the soil. The extra sunlight is worth it, though, prompting trees to evolve multiple times in history, a phenomenon called
An illustration of the ancient Wattieza tree, based on fossils found in what's now New York.
/ Wikimedia Commons /CC BY-SA 2.0
The earliest known tree is Wattieza, identified from 385-million-year-old fossils from the mid-Devonian period, found in what's now New York. Part of a prehistoric plant family thought to be ancestors of ferns, it stood 26 feet (8 meters) tall and formed the first known forests. It may have lacked leaves, instead growing frond-like branches with "branchlets" resembling a bottlebrush (see illustration). It wasn't closely related to tree ferns, but did share their method of reproducing by spores, not seeds.
6. Scientists Thought This Dinosaur-Era Tree Went Extinct 150 Million Years Ago—but Then It Was Found Growing Wild in Australia
Wollemia nobilis still exists in a few rainforest hideouts, but it's critically endangered.
/Wikimedia Commons /CC BY-SA 3.0
During the Jurassic Period, a genus of cone-bearing evergreen trees now named Wollemia lived on the supercontinent Gondwana. These ancient trees were long known only from the fossil record, and were thought to have been extinct for 150 million years—until 1994, when a few survivors of one species were found living in a temperate rainforest at Australia's Wollemia National Park.
That species, Wollemia nobilis, is often described as a living fossil. Only about 80 mature trees are left, plus some 300 seedlings and juveniles, and the species is
listed as critically endangered
by the International Union for Conservation of Nature.
While Wollemia nobilis is the last of its genus, there are also still other middle Mesozoic trees alive today. Ginkgo biloba, aka the ginkgo tree, dates back about 200 million years and has been called "the most ancient living tree."
7. Some Trees Emit Chemicals That Attract Enemies of Their Enemies
Songbirds provide valuable pest control for many trees.
Sander Meertins Photography / Shutterstock
Trees may look passive and helpless, but they're savvier than they seem. Not only can they produce chemicals to combat leaf-eating insects, for instance, but some also send airborne chemical signals to each other, apparently warning nearby trees to prepare for an insect attack. Research has shown that a wide range of trees and other plants become more resistant to insects after receiving these signals.
Trees' airborne signals can even convey information outside the plant kingdom. Some have been shown to attract predators and parasites that kill the insects, essentially letting an embattled tree call for backup. Research has mainly focused on chemicals that attract other arthropods, but as a 2013 study found, apple trees under attack by caterpillars release chemicals that attract caterpillar-eating birds.
8. Trees in a Forest Can 'Talk' and Share Nutrients Through an Underground Internet Built by Soil Fungi
Redwood trees rise toward the night sky at Lake Tahoe, California.
Asif Islam / Shutterstock
Like most plants, trees have symbiotic relationships with mycorrhizal fungi that live on their roots. The fungi help trees absorb more water and nutrients from the soil, and trees repay the favor by sharing sugars from photosynthesis. But as a growing field of research shows, this mycorrhizal network also works on a much larger scale, sort of like an
underground Internet that connects entire forests
The fungi link each tree to others nearby, forming a huge, forest-scale platform for communication and resource sharing. As University of British Columbia ecologist Suzanne Simard has found, these networks include older, larger hub trees (or "mother trees") that may be connected to hundreds of younger trees around them. "We have found that mother trees will send their excess carbon through the mycorrhizal network to the understory seedlings," Simard explained in a
2016 TED Talk
, "and we've associated this with increased seedling survival by four times."
Simard later explained that
mother trees may even help forests adapt to human-induced climate change
, thanks to their "memory" of slower natural changes in past decades or centuries. "They've lived for a long time and they've lived through many fluctuations in climate. They curate that memory in the DNA," she said. "The DNA is encoded and has adapted through mutations to this environment. So that genetic code carries the code for variable climates coming up."
9. Most Tree Roots Stay in the Top 18 Inches of Soil, but They Can Also Grow Above Ground or Dive a Few Hundred Feet Deep
Many mangrove trees have stilt roots to help with breathing and stability.
Sayam Trirattanapaiboon / Shutterstock
Holding up a tree is a tall order, but it's often achieved by surprisingly shallow roots. Most trees don't have a taproot, and most
lie in the top 18 inches of soil, where growing conditions tend to be best. More than half of a tree's roots usually grow in the top 6 inches of soil, but that lack of depth is offset by lateral growth: the root system of a mature oak, for example, can be hundreds of miles in length.
Still, tree roots vary widely based on species, soil, and climate. Bald cypress grows along rivers and swamps, and some of its roots form exposed "knees" that supply air to underwater roots like a snorkel. Similar breathing tubes, called pneumatophores, are also found in the stilt roots of some mangrove trees, along with other adaptations like the ability to filter up to 90% of salt out of seawater.
On the other hand, some trees do extend remarkably deep underground. Certain types are more prone to grow a taproot—including hickory, oak, pine, and walnut—especially in sandy, well-drained soils. Trees have been known to go more than 20 feet (6 meters) below the surface under ideal conditions, and a wild fig at South Africa's Echo Caves has reportedly reached a record root depth of 400 feet.
10. A Large Oak Tree Can Consume About 100 Gallons of Water per Day, and a Giant Sequoia Can Drink Up to 500 Gallons Daily
The Angel Oak, a roughly 400-year-old southern live oak on Johns Island, South Carolina, produces an impressive 17,200 square feet of shade (1,600 square meters) under its iconic gnarled branches.
Mike Ver Sprill / Shutterstock
Many mature trees require a huge amount of water, which may be bad for drought-stricken orchards but is often good for people in general. The
absorption of water by trees
can limit flooding from heavy rain, especially in low-lying areas like river plains. By helping the ground absorb more water, and by holding soil together with their roots, trees can reduce the risk of erosion and property damage from flash floods.
A single mature oak, for example, is able to transpire more than 40,000 gallons of water in a year—meaning, that's how much flows from its roots to its leaves, which release water as vapor back into the air. The rate of transpiration varies during the year, but 40,000 gallons averages out to 109 gallons per day. Larger trees move even more water. A giant sequoia, whose trunk may be 300 feet tall, can transpire 500 gallons a day. And since trees emit water vapor, large forests also help make it rain.
As a bonus, trees have a knack for
soaking up soil pollutants
, too. One sugar maple can remove 60 milligrams of cadmium, 140 mg of chromium, and 5,200 mg of lead from the soil per year, and studies have shown farm runoff contains up to 88% less nitrate and 76% less phosphorus after flowing through a forest.
11. Trees Help Us Breathe—and Not Just by Producing Oxygen
/ Getty Images
About half of all oxygen in the air comes from phytoplankton, but trees are a major source, too. Still, their relevance for humans' oxygen intake is a bit hazy. Various sources suggest a mature leafy tree produces enough oxygen for two to 10 people per year, but others have countered with significantly lower estimates.
Yet even without the oxygen, trees clearly offer plenty of other benefits, from food, medicine, and raw materials to shade, windbreaks, and flood control. And, as Matt Hickman
reported in 2016
, city trees are "one of the most cost-effective methods of curbing urban air pollution levels and combating the urban heat island effect." That's a big deal, since more than 3 million people die worldwide each year from illnesses linked to air pollution. In the U.S. alone,
pollution removal by urban trees
is estimated to save 850 lives per year and $6.8 billion in total health care costs.
There's also another notable way trees can indirectly save lives by breathing. They
take in carbon dioxide
, a natural part of the atmosphere that's now at dangerously high levels due to the burning of fossil fuels. Excess CO2 drives life-threatening climate change by trapping heat on Earth, but trees—especially
—provide a valuable check on our CO2 emissions.
12. Adding One Tree to an Open Pasture Can Increase Its Bird Biodiversity From Almost Zero Species to as High as 80
Trees provide food, housing and other benefits for a wide range of songbirds, like this family of black-naped blue flycatchers nesting in a fork between two branches.
Super Prin / Shutterstock
Native trees create vital habitat for a variety of wildlife, from ubiquitous urban squirrels and songbirds to less obvious animals like bats, bees, owls, woodpeckers, flying squirrels, and fireflies. Some of these guests offer direct perks for people—such as by
pollinating our plants
, or eating pests like mosquitoes and mice—while others bring subtler benefits just by adding to local
To help quantify this effect, researchers from Stanford University developed a way to estimate biodiversity based on tree cover. They recorded 67,737 observations of 908 plant and animal species over a 10-year period, then plotted those data against Google Earth images of tree cover. As they reported in a
published in PNAS, four of the six species groups—understory plants, non-flying mammals, bats, and birds—saw a
significant biodiversity boost
in areas with more tree cover.
They found that adding a single tree to a pasture, for example, could raise the number of bird species from near zero to 80. After this initial spike, adding trees continued to correlate with more species, but less quickly. As a stand of trees approached 100% coverage within a certain area, endangered and at-risk species like wildcats and deep-forest birds began to appear, the researchers report.
13. Trees Can Lower Stress, Raise Property Values, and Fight Crime
Urban trees, like these at Tokyo's Shinjuku Gyoen, offer more than just ambience.
Wayne0216 / Shutterstock
It's human nature to like trees. Just looking at them can make us feel happier, less stressed, and more creative. This may be partly due to
, or our innate affinity for nature, but there are also other forces at work. When
humans are exposed to chemicals released by trees
known as phytoncides, for example, research has shown results such as reduced blood pressure, reduced anxiety, increased pain threshold, and even increased expression of anti-cancer proteins.
Considering that, maybe it's little wonder trees have been shown to raise our evaluations of real estate. According to the U.S. Forest Service, landscaping with healthy, mature trees adds an average of 10% to a property's value (some estimates are as high as 20%). Research also shows urban trees are correlated with lower crime rates, including things from graffiti, vandalism, and littering to domestic violence.
14. This Tree Has Been Alive Since Woolly Mammoths Still Existed
/ Flickr / CC BY 2.0
One of the most fascinating things about trees is
how long some can live
. Clonal colonies are known to endure for tens of thousands of years—Utah's
Pando aspen grove
dates back 80,000 years—but many individual trees also stand their ground for centuries or millennia at a time. North America's bristlecone pines are especially long-lived, and one in California that's 4,848 years old (pictured above) was considered the planet's oldest individual tree until 2013, when researchers announced they'd found a another bristlecone that sprouted 5,062 years ago. (The last woolly mammoths, for comparison, died about 4,000 years ago.)
To intelligent primates who are lucky to have 100 birthdays, the idea of a brainless plant living for 60 human lifetimes evokes a unique kind of respect. Yet even when a tree does finally die, it still plays a key role in its ecosystem. Dead wood has huge value for a forest, creating a slow, steady source of nitrogen as well as microhabitats for all kinds of animals. As much as 40% of woodland wildlife depends on dead trees, from fungi, lichens, and mosses to insects, amphibians, and birds.
15. A Large Oak Tree Can Drop 10,000 Acorns in One Year
The nuts of oak trees are hugely popular with wildlife. In the U.S., acorns represent a major food source for more than 100 vertebrate species, and all that attention means most acorns never get to germinate. But oak trees have boom and bust cycles, possibly as an adaptation to help them outfox the acorn-eating animals.
During an acorn boom, known as a
, a single large oak can drop as many as 10,000 nuts. And while most of those may end up as a meal for birds and mammals, every so often a lucky acorn gets started on a journey that will carry it hundreds of feet into the sky and a century into the future. For a sense of what that's like, here's a time-lapse video of an acorn becoming a young tree: